From <<Θύραθεν>> ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΚΟ ΛΕΞΙΚΟ by Vlassis G. Rassias

Translated and Adapted by Mano and Lesley Madytinos


When first confronted by this Lexicon of Standard Terminology for Hellenismos in English, the reader will
likely be perplexed by the omission of the more common approach of Comparative Language Dictionaries
that merely list interchangeable words in both languages and the usage of a more comprehensive method of
importing new Hellenic terms into English accompanied by the translation and study of these Hellenic terms
and concepts. To understand the necessity for this will require that a pertinent question be both asked and
answered. This question is the simplified foundation of two distinct ideas that exist in the field of
Linguistics, as the scientific study of natural languages and more specifically the topical division of
Semantics (the study of meaning).
Is Language and thus meaning Universal or Culturally-Specific?

The idea of the universality of language proposes that the same universal ideas are expressed by a myriad of
different labels in the multitude of languages, past and present. This is a far-reaching theory which implies
that ultimately the words and the concepts they represent in any particular language are interchangeable with
their equivalent words and concepts in another language without any change or distortion in meaning to the
concept being expressed. Many texts have been translated from one language to another in accordance with
the premise that language is universal and words are interchangeable. Inherent within this proposition is the
essential universality of concepts themselves. In this theory, universal human concepts are thought to be
'hardwired' into the human cognitive system from whence the universality of human experience is expressed
by interchangeable words in a myriad of different languages. In one popular variant [1] of this theory, it is
suggested that the universality of human conception and experience is based upon the universality of the
features of the human environment (e.g. sun, stars, fire, water, etc). Although ideologies deriving from this
theory are widely known, research and case studies over the past three decades have provided ample
evidence that the matter of human conception, experience and language are not as simplistic or uniform as
true universality would imply.

There are indeed a small number of universal Ideas common to all humans that exist independently of
language. These universal concepts are expressed within the characteristics and qualities of the objective
reality of any 'object' and are perceived within the human mind by the cognitive system common to all
humans. However, words themselves do not express the total objective reality of an object. Words represent
certain characteristics and qualities of an object that have been selected out of the totality of characteristics
and qualities of any object. Which characteristics and qualities are selected is based upon the structure of
culturally-specific concepts and values. These cognitive and conceptual selections vary from one language to
another to a greater or lesser extent. A good example of this is the words 'river' and 'stream' in English, where
the distinction between words is based upon size, in comparison to the French 'fleuve' and 'rivière' where the
distinction is not determined by magnitude but rather upon whether or not the river flows directly to the sea.
This illustrates that totally different concepts were used to distinguish between words that are supposed to be
the equivalent of one another in a direct translation. Yet both the English and French words are used to
denote the same object but from entirely divergent perspectives and based on different value systems and
conceptions of nature.
"A moderate skill in different languages will easily satisfy the truth of this, it being so obvious to observe the great store
of words in one language that have not any to answer them in another. Which plainly shows that those of one country,
by their customs and manner of life, have found occasion to make several complex ideas and given names to them,
which others never collected into specific ideas." John Locke [2]
Words do not directly represent objective reality but in truth rather express culturally-specific collectives of
human conception of objective reality. Words and their concepts within each language represent the unique
relationship between a specific collective with their environment, nature in general, the Kosmos and the
The Hellenic language illustrates this perfectly in that the names of many of the Gods are also the common
names and verbs used to describe objects and actions within each Gods sphere of activity. The beliefs of the
Hellenes are totally integrated into the structure of the language. This essential animism inherent within the
language demonstrates the unique relationship of the culturally specific collective of Hellenes with the Gods,
the Kosmos and all within it. The unique culture has mediated between individual and object to create a
structure by which to understand the Kosmos. From this perspective, when we say ''ΗΛΙΟΣ" (Helios) in the
Hellenic language or 'Sun' in English to refer to the same object, we are not certainly referring to the same
conception of the object. Hence no translation is truly possible without explaining the distinct concepts
inherent within one or both of the different names for the same object. The distinction between words in
different languages exists because of differences in relationships between subject and object.
Studies [3] on the differences in modes of individual expression have illustrated that culture plays an
enormous role in what and how people communicate. Different modes of expression are determined by the
social values and beliefs of a specific culture. These culture-specific values and beliefs act as the framework
for interaction. Hence any form of expression or communication (oral or written) should not be removed
from the framework of the culture from whence it derives if an accurate understanding of the information
expressed is to be attained.
"Culture may be defined as a set of attitudes, beliefs, customs and values
shared by a collective of people and passed down from one generation to another
via language or some other form of communication" Masahiko Minami [4]
In fact, language and culture are so intimately connected that simply phrased, language is a communication
medium that uses words to draw on common concepts and ideas of the people who share the culture of a
language. Each language is thus an expression and embodiment of its cultural reality with the particular signs
and markings of the language being the symbols of this reality. This cultural reality in turn develops and
nurtures the world view and methods of socialisation of the humans within its reality. Linguistic knowledge
is simultaneously socio-cultural knowledge and it is through learning a language that children and other new
members of a community are socialised and gain entry into the specific structure of meaning for a particular
collective. Learning a language is simultaneously the learning of the linguistic structure of a specific culture
and is an essential building block to the culture-specific representational forms of the collective [5].
From this perspective, it is easy to understand that in the same manner as words reflect certain of the
characteristics and qualities of an object so too are selected human characteristics, ideals and potentials
developed in any specific culture. Some characteristics, ideals and potentials have a higher priority within
any collective while others will have a lower priority or be discouraged. This is the essential nature and
natural tendency of culture that develops its people through the nurture of certain characteristics and the
negation of others. Every language is the cultural medium of the development and interaction of its specific
cultural collective and reality. The words of any particular language are specific to the linguistic structure of
the reality of their own specific culture. In other words, every single word in a language draws from the
many potential meanings possible for the object and attempts to communicate the concept it represents and
embody the essential truth and place of the object within its own cultural reality. Each word is thus loaded
with not only its etymological origins but also the history of how the word has been used and the
associations of concepts and ideas it has gained in its usage. Each word is a common collective expression
that evokes a particular conceptual meaning for an object or its activities out of the total potential of
conceptual meanings that may express different cultural realities of the same object. The specific meaning
for each word of each language is the unique sense of order or structure placed on nature and the world by a
particular culture. All the words of a language in totality are the total cultural structure placed upon the world
by a specific collective of people. This structure is not only the reflection of objective and common reality
for the collective of people who participate therein but its words are also the medium of communication that
exist between the individuals of the collective with each other and the individual/collective with nature, the
world and the universe itself. Words and the specific concepts they embody are therefore the intellectual
medium between the subjective perspective of the individual with the objective reality of their collective.
Words concurrently mediate between the collective and the objective reality of the universe in a manner that
enables the collective and its individuals to understand the world from a structured perspective. This
structure both liberates and constrains the intellect of the collective and as a consequence the individual too
through acculturation and socialisation. Standards and norms of the significance and meaning of words
create the standards and norms of interaction and interpretation of any collective of individuals. The common
modes of interaction and interpretation in turn create the social conventions and value systems of the
collective. It is from within this structure that all the products of any culture of people arise [6].
"We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native languages. The world is presented in a kaleidoscope flux of
impressions which has to be organised by our minds - and this means largely by the linguistic systems of our minds. We
cut nature up, organise it into concepts and ascribe significances as we do, largely because we are parties to an
agreement to organise it in this way - an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in the
patterns of our language. The agreement is of course an implicit and unstated one, but its terms are absolutely
obligatory; we cannot talk at all except by subscribing to the organisation and classification of data which the
agreement decrees." Benjamin Whorf
Acculturation and socialisation are therefore the agents of civilisation and the means by which any group of
people develop conscious awareness or intellect, forge a collective identity and find order within nature, the
Kosmos and the Universe.
"No two languages are ever sufficiently similar to be considered as representing the same social reality.
The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds,
not merely the same world with different labels attached." Edward Sapir
It is possible to say that any particular civilisation is a solidification of the culture of its collective and when
one considers the intimate association between culture and language as its medium of interaction and
interpretation, it becomes possible to begin to understand the ancient Hellenic concept of the Logos as well
as the reasons why the ancient Hellenes are correctly referred to as the Civilisation of the Logos.
Over thirty years of research and case studies into the 'universality' of human conception has yielded very
meagre evidence with only approximately three dozen 'universal' or elementary human concepts being
identified [7].
As a result the universality theory and its proposition that words and the concepts they represent are
interchangeable in the varied multitude of languages has been proved limited and dogmatic. Languages and
culture are inextricably interwoven. Any lexicon of words that has been translated from one language to
another must logically also translate the unique cultural concept that is represented by the word if it wishes to
accurately represent the conceptual meaning of a word in its language of origin. There is no longer scholarly
justification for translations that merely replace a word in one language for the closest word in another
"To be sure, a midpoint around which all languages revolve can be sought and really found and this midpoint should
always be kept in mind in the comparative study of languages, both in the grammar and lexicon.
For in a number of things which can be determined completely 'a-priori' and which can be separated from the
conditions of a particular language. On the other hand, there is a far greater number of concepts and grammatical
peculiarities, which are so inextricably woven into the individuality of their language that they can neither be kept
suspended between all languages on the mere thread of inner perception nor can they be carried over into another
language without alteration" Wilhelm von Humboldt
In translations between the Hellenic language and English, a further factor exists that both helps and hinders
a proper understanding of translations between the two languages. There are currently over 30 000 Hellenic
words in the English language. Some of these imported words create the etymological foundation for an
anglicised form of the Hellenic word while others will be combined with other imported words to form an
English concept word. The similarity between the transliterated forms of this type of English word may lead
some to believe that the anglicised word is always interchangeable with its Hellenic derivative.
Unfortunately, cultures change and the concepts represented by words change simultaneously. The Hellenic
words that were incorporated into English have very often taken on different cultural associations and
concepts to their Hellenic counterparts over time. In many instances only the most basic meaning of the
Hellenic word was brought across to its anglicised form rendering the English concept of the word limited
and simplistic in comparison to the Hellenic concept from which it derives. There are also countless other
modern English words that have been imported into the language from both the old and new languages of
other cultural collectives aside from those that have evolved from Old English (prior to 1150 CE) and Middle
English (1150 to 1500 CE). The concepts represented by many of these words diverge to a greater or lesser
extent, both in origin and modern usage, to what may appear on the surface to be parallel Hellenic concepts.
These factors greatly affect the accuracy of direct translations of texts from ancient Hellenic into Modern
English and especially those where the translator has merely replaced the Hellenic word with its closest
English equivalent without the use of annotated notes to explain the differences in concepts. Although it is
important to note that for the purposes of purely literary entertainment, many of the direct translations
without notes will suffice. Precision and accuracy of translation of the concepts represented by words in their
original language is of the utmost importance in the study of the Hellenic religion and philosophy. Likewise,
the usage of proper terms with standard definitions that precisely detail the concept in its language of origin
is of primary importance in any modern text written for the purposes of disseminating information about the
Hellenic religion and/or philosophy.
It is for this purpose that the Lexicon of Standard Terminology for Hellenismos in English has been
compiled and translated. Hellenic words and terms that are currently in common usage by English-speaking
Hellenic Polytheists have been identified and defined according to the precise concepts referred to by the
ancient Hellenes. There are also many English words and terms that are currently being used to represent
Hellenic concepts that do not precisely correspond to the proper Hellenic concept. Efforts to redefine the
English words to suit the Hellenic concepts have had limited success as the majority of the public as well as
newcomers to the religion will still read the words and form their ideas based on the Standard English
definitions of words as found in English dictionaries. For this reason, some of the more misleading English
words and terms have been identified and the proper Hellenic terms and concepts have been imported into
English. The Hellenic words and terms whose comparative conceptual meanings find a satisfactory
equivalent in English have been omitted from the lexicon.
It is our hope that this lexicon will form the basis for the religion to have the same terminology and
conceptual meaning in both Hellenic and English. It will simultaneously provide a very succinct and precise
set of standards that will foster the common bond of meaning and language between us all. It is important to
note that this lexicon is by no means complete or comprehensive yet. New words will be added to it at
regular intervals and to this end we request that any words or concepts that you may believe to have been
erroneously omitted from the Lexicon of Standard Terminology for Hellenismos in English to be forwarded
to us for an evaluation of comparative terms and possible addition to the next edition of the lexicon.
[1] Swadash, M: The Language of the Archaeological Huastecs
[2] Semantics, Culture and Cognition, Universal Human Concepts in Culture-Specific Configurations: Anna Wierzbicka Pg 18, 19,
[3] D Hymes (1981, 1982, 1985, 1990), Ochs and Schieffelin (1984), Schiefellin and Eisenberg (1984); Au (1993), S Michaels
(1981, 1991) and J.P. Gee (1985, 1986a, 1989a, 1989b, 1991b). For further information see: (a) J.P.Gee's 'What is Literacy?
Teaching and Learning 2'; (b) JP Gee's 'Social Linguistics and Literacies, Ideology in Discourses', essays from the Journal of
Education; (c) J.P.Gee's 'A Linguistic Approach to Narrative' from the Journal of Narrative and Life History; (d) JP Gee's 'Memory
and Myth, A Perspective on Narrative'; (e) D Hymes' 'Foundations of Sociolinguistics' and 'Ethnology, Linguistics, Narrative
Inequality: Toward an Understanding in Voice'
[4 & 5] Culture-specific Language Styles: Masahiko Minami
[6] Language and Culture: Claire Kramsch from the Oxford Introduction to Language Study Series edited by H.G Widdowson
[7] Semantics, Culture and Cognition, Universal Human Concepts in Culture-Specific Configurations: Anna Wierzbicka Pg 18, 19,
Further Sources
Linguistic Problems in Translation: William R Schmalstieg (Pennsylvania State University) from the Lithuanian Quarterly Journal of
Arts and Sciences (Volume 15, No. 3 - Fall 1969)
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding: John Locke (published in 1690)
A guide to the correct pronunciation of each word in the Lexicon has been included. This pronunciation
guide makes use of a very specific pronunciation key (Key 1). This pronunciation key has been also been
included in the accompanying guides to pronouncing the Hellenic Alphabet (Key 2) and Diphthongs (Key 3).
(ah) after, father, palm
(eh) ever, pet, end
(ee) even, tree
it, give
as in the German ach or Scottish
odd, hot, occupant
(oh) open, so
To denote that the word should be pronounced
with a distinct break, i.e. that the letter should be
pronounced separately and not as a part of a
diphthong with the letter before
Ō ō
PS ps
KH kh
PH ph or F f
Y y or U u or Ē
T t
S s
R r
P p
Ô ô
X x
N n
M m
L l
K k
İ i
TH th
Ē ē
Z z
Ê ê
D d
G g
V v
Ȧ ȧ
Ω ω Omega o as in ‘so’
Ψ ψ Psi pss
ch as in the Scottish
Χ χ Khi
phi as in ‘philosophy’ or f
as in ‘fresh’
Φ φ Phi
Υ υ Ypsilon e as in ‘even’
Τ τ Taf t as in ‘task’
Σ σ Sigma s as in ‘sun’
Ρ ρ Rho r as in ‘roar’
Π π Pi p as in ‘pick’
Ο ο Omikron o as in ‘order’
Ξ ξ Xi xi as in ‘taxi’
Ν ν Ni n as in ‘new’
Μ μ Mi m as in ‘man’
Λ λ Lamtha l as in ‘lake’
Κ κ Kappa k as in ‘kite’
Ι ι Iota i as in ‘it’
Θ θ Theta th as in ‘moth’
Η η Eta ee
Ζ ζ Zeta zz
Ε ε Epsilon eh
Δ δ Thelta th as in ‘though’
Γ γ Gamma gutteral ‘gh’
Β β Vita vee
Α α Alpha ah
ΟΥ οι (OU ou) ou as in ‘soup’
ΕΥ ευ (EU eu) ev as in ‘ever’
ΑΥ αυ (AU au) av as in ‘averse’
ΟΙ οι (OI oi) İ I (i as in ‘intent’)
ΕΙ ει (EI ei) Ē ē (e as in ‘even’)
ΑΙ αι (AI ai) Ê ê (e as in ‘elephant’)
Diphthongs in
Hellenic and
Please note: Various 'Other Forms' of each word have been given to illustrate the different declinations and
conjugations of the assorted words. These forms of the word have not been included for common usage as
many of them (other than the nouns) would make no sense in terms of English grammatical structure.
Pronunciation: Êsthēsis
Singular: Aesthesis
Plural: Aestheses
Other Forms of the Word:
Aesthesêos: that which derives from Aestheses.
Common English translation: feeling, sensation, sensory awareness
Translated definition of the word:
AESTHESIS is a primordial phenomenon of the PSYCHE (soul) that results from external causes which are
known as ERETHISMATA (stimulations).
According to Speusippos, it is the movement of the NOUS (mind) and the course of the PSYCHE or
message to the PSYCHE which enters via the sense organs of the body.
Pythagoras held AESTHESIS to be one of the four supports of the human PSYCHE. These supports are
AESTHESIS, NOUS, EPISTEME (secure knowledge) and DOXA (opinion).
Demokritos and Epicurus determined AESTHESIS to be that upon which human GNOSIS (knowledge) is
founded. Furthermore Demokritos stated that the conclusions of LOGIKI (rational thinking) must be
supported by the witness of the senses although the senses alone cannot provide secure GNOSIS because:
a) The properties of matter are nothing more than consensual descriptions of the effects that matter has on
mortals and the environment
b) Different people experience things differently because of their personal idiosyncrasies.
Thus Demokritos divides GNOSIS into two categories; firstly that which is gained through the intellect (pure
GNOSIS) and secondly that which is gained through the senses which he refers to as 'skotië' (being that
which is distorted by the natural limitations of the human senses).
Correspondingly, Epicurus held everything to be real (regardless of whether the GNOSIS was derived from
senses or the intellect and saw the distinctions as only differences in expression. [Compare NOESIS]
Pronunciation: Ȧgȧlmȧ
Singular: Agalma (neuter)
Plural: Agalmata (neuter)
Other Forms of the Word:
Agalmaton: (plural) of the Agalmata
Agalmatos: (singular) of the Agalmata
Common English translation: statue
Translated definition of the word:
AGALMA derives from the verb 'agalo' meaning to decorate, make decent, to make someone famous, pay
homage, to enlarge, gladden as well as the feelings of elation and joy. The word AGALMA therefore means
honour, elation, glory, a gift pleasing to the Gods and an image in the honour of a God or Goddess (including
any image created by the spoken word or writing). Initially, ALGAMATA were the various gifts to the Gods
for the purpose of worship. Copies of these gifts and the original gifts were considered centres of pleasure
for the Gods and the most important relics within the temples. The AGALMATA always depict the Gods in
contrast to the ANDRIANDA (images that depict mortals).
Porphyry says that an AGALMA is every depiction of a God, Goddess or Divine Power presenting a
naturally identifiable picture to the human senses:
"…imprinting the invisible creations into the visible, which, just like an open book, achieve in describing our
basic knowledge of the Gods, subject to one's ability to read them. It is not then questionable that the
uneducated consider the AGALMATA to be wood and stone, as the unlettered consider the letters to be only
scratches and consider the unmarked columns to be simply stone, wooden notice boards to be just pieces of
wood and books just to be bundles of papyrus."
He further states:
"…because the Divine is light-like and radiates perpetually into the ethereal fire and it is invisible to the
senses of those who have their cares exclusively on the things of mortal life, the makers of the AGALMATA
used the appropriate materials such as crystal, marble or ivory to refer to the understanding of fire and gold
as the properties of the incorruptible as gold is incorruptible. Others wishing to state the invisible essence of
the Divine used a black stone. They imprinted a human form on the Gods because the Divine is LOGIKI
(logic) and they allocated beauty to them because Divine Beauty is imperishable. They used different forms
and ages, seats, poses and coverings; some they depicted as male and some as female, some as young and
virginal and others wedded so as to illustrate the relationships between them. So all that is white, they
allocated to the Heavenly Gods. The sphere and all that is spherical they allocated to the KOSMOS, the sun
and the Moon and everywhere there is luck and hope. The circle and all circular things are allocated to
Kronos (Time) and to heavenly movements, to belts and cycles contained in the sky, while the parts of the
circle are allocated to the transformations of the moon. Pyramids and obelisks to the essence of fire and thus
to the Olympian Gods. To Helios they gave the cone, to Gē (Earth) the cylinder, for the seeding and fertility
they instituted the Phallus and for the vagina the triangle."
Pronunciation: Ȧgȧpē
Singular: Agape (noun)
Plural: Agapes (noun)
Other Forms of the Word:
Agapan : (noun) the action of loving
Common English translation: love
Translated definition of the word:
The word AGAPE as a noun refers to being disposed towards someone in a friendly or erotic manner. The
AGAPAN is contained within the good ethics and deeds of the Pythagoreans.
The academics via Speusippos determined AGAPE to be complete receptivity or total acceptance. AGAPE is
a procedure of the ARÊTE (Virtue) known as PHILOTES (friendship) and as such a sensitivity of the human
PSYCHE (Soul). Thus AGAPE is not one of the ARÊTÊS (as universal Divine Power manifesting inbetween
mortals) but a plainly positive sensation which lacks an application contrary to the ARÊTÊS. There
is no adjective in the Hellenic language to describe the object of AGAPE (i.e. as the lover or beloved is to
Love in English) but a rather a sense of AGAPE as a state of total receptivity to everyone (either erotic or
friendly) that holds no exact object of affection. [Compare EROS].
Pronunciation: Ȧgȧthôn
Singular: Agathon
Plural: Agatha (neuter plural)
Other Forms of the Word:
Agathos (male); Agathē (female); Agatho (neuter); Agathoi (male plural); Agathês (female plural)
Agathotita: (noun); denoting that which is Agathon
Common English translation: beneficence, good
Translated definition of the word:
The AGATHA denotes the values that have primary priority in the individual and communal life.
AGATHON is that which is Good for All as well as that which is useful and beneficial.
In Aristotle's 'Metaphysics' mention is made of the ten principles of the Pythagorean school of thought.
These ten principles were comprised of the ten dualities that ordered the Kosmos. The ninth of these
principles is given as the tension of the opposites between AGATHON and KAKON (bad) as dual sides of a
single principle. This word as an ordering principle of good has a very specific meaning and is used within
context to that which is ultimately AGATHA, beneficial, advantageous and includes the concept of natural
aptitude, various talents or innate abilities.
Plato refers to the following as the first of the excellent AGATHA: Health, Beauty and Wealth (PLOUTOS).
In Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, Plato's definition of the eternal nature of AGATHON is discussed as
varied and manifesting within different contexts:
(1) Within the category of substance as the THEOI (Gods) and the NOUS (mind)
(2) Within the category of quality as ARÊTE (Virtue)
(3) Within the category of quantity as Moderation
(4) Within the category of time as the Appropriate Time or Opportunity
(5) Within the category of relation as that which is Useful
(6) Within the category of place as Habitat
According to the Stoics, the AGATHA are the behaviours which the philosophers must systematically
subject themselves to in order to attain SOPHOS (personification of wisdom).
The AGATHA are distinguished into ARÊTÊS, Ethical Deeds or Achievements and Sensitivities.
a) To the ARÊTÊS belong: LOGIKI (the ability for rational thought), SOPHIA (Wisdom), DIKEOSYNE
(Justice/Righteousness), ANDREIA (Bravery, Valour, Courage), SOPHROSYNE (Prudence), Devotion,
Reasonable Generosity and Reasonable Friendship.
b) To the Ethical Deeds or Achievements belong: all of the actions that conform to the demands of ARÊTĒ
such as reasonable deeds, righteous deeds and courageous deeds, etc.
c) To the Sensitivities belong: are the AGATHES as the sensible urges or agreeable dispositions such as; Will
(as the sensible movement of the PSYCHĒ/soul towards the AGATHON), Serenity, EULABEIA (devotion
with context to being mentally reserved) and Joy as the rational movement of PSYCHĒ expanding.
For the Neo-Platonists, the word AGATHON denotes all deeds that lead towards the Unity or YPERTATON
AGATHON (Absolute or Supreme AGATHON).
Aristotle himself held that things could be referred to as AGATHOS in two different manners. Firstly as
those things that are AGATHOS in their own right and secondly with reference to the means employed to
secure those things that are AGATHOS in their own right. Aristotle postulated that due to the distinctions
and differences of the characteristics of AGATHON within all things, that AGATHON is not a common
characteristic corresponding to a single Idea but rather the TELOS (perfection/end) of every action or
pursuit. As every action or pursuit had more than one end, Aristotle held that the YPERTATON AGATHON
was the final TELOS of man's actions and pursuits. The mortal search for AGATHON could thus be found
in the most final TELOS (and perfection) of every action or pursuit.
The YPERTATON AGATHON differs from one philosophical school to another but the word generally
refers to that which is Divine in nature.
Pronunciation: Ȧgōn
Singular: Agon
Plural: Agonês
Other Forms of the Word:
Agonia: a consequence of Agon
Common English translation: strife, struggle, conflict, contest
Translated definition of the word:
AGON originally denoted 'a gathering' and was later extended to mean an athletic contest. An AGON
commences and takes place within the context of an 'ago' which is a gathering of the THEOI (Gods), people,
ships, etc and developed from the time of Homer to mean a gathering for the purposes of a contest. AGON
is in contrast to 'amilla' which is the participation in a contest for the sake of participation as AGON refers
to the struggle for victory and includes the understanding of intense adversity, opposition and confrontation.
AGON gives rise to AGONIA (anxiety, agony) which is one of the PATHEI [See PATHOS] and refers to
sorrow, distress and the fear of danger or the unknown.
Pronunciation: Êδôs
Singular: Aidos
Plural: No plural
Other Forms of the Word:
Aidous: used when denoting something that falls within the definition of Aidos.
Common English translation: shame, bashfulness
Translated definition of the word:
AIDOS refers to the sensation of shame, the sensation of being honourable (virtuous), the sensation of
having a worthy self-esteem, feeling respectful and dignity and as such AIDOS is determined to be an
ARÊTE. As AIDOS is a tendency of the PSYCHE (Soul) and not some fleeting sensation it differs from
simple sensations such as disgrace and dishonour. AIDOS upholds societies in an ethical order and is the
opposite of ANAIDEIA (impudence). AIDOS determines the choices of humans to avoid coming in conflict
with the unwritten ethical laws of their society. AIDOS does not derive from some external compulsion but
is purely an internal ethical conscience. AIDOS is not attained by the compulsion of laws that force one to
act ethically but is rather achieved through an understanding of one's social duty. AIDOS is considered the
highest political ARÊTE and is connected to DIKEOSYNE (Justice) as aptly illustrated in the myth related
by Plato in the Protagoras.
According to Speusippos, AIDOS is the voluntary reservation of boldness in the face of that which is better
or a voluntary acceptance of excellence as well as receptivity to good judgement.
Aristotle states that AIDOS together with EUTAXIA (Good Order), KOSMIOTITA (Decency, Orderliness)
and EULABEIA (Respect in terms of Mental Reservation) is company to SOPHROSYNE (Prudence).
The Goddess AIDOS was worshipped all over ancient Hellas with a large VOMOS (altar) in Athens and a
famous statue that stood at the entrance to the city of Sparta. She stood for the ideas of bashfulness, respect,
forgiveness, decency, self-esteem and all that is honourable as well as the moral fear of improprieties. She is
presented as the enemy of ANAΙDEIA (impudence) according to Hesiod and sometimes as one of the Horai
with Themis as her mother and Eunomia, Dike and Nemesis as her sisters. AIDOS is characterized as the
mother of SOPHROSYNE (Prudence) and counselor to Zeus as well as the nurturer of Athena.
Pronunciation: Ȧlēthēiȧ
Singular: Aletheia
Plural: Alethiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Aletheias: (singular) that which is related to Aletheia
Alethês: meaning 'it is true'
Common English translation: truth
Translated definition of the word:
ALETHEIA derives from the verb 'letho' meaning 'I do something undetected, I remain unknown'. The word
implies the pursuit of the perpetual dedication to the meaning of EINAI [see EINAI] as ALETHEIA is
determined to be the absolute compliance or correspondence of understanding reality or the absolute
correspondence of the Understanding of the EINAI. Therefore it is philosophically accepted that ALETHEIA
is the correspondence of reason with reality.
According to Speusippos, ALETHEIA is EPISTEME (science/secure knowledge) of truth as well as the
ability to accept or deny. Plato determines ALETHEIA to be the exploration of the Divine (Ale-Theia) in
search of OMOIOSIS (Equality).
Herakleitos determines ALETHEIA to be the essence of the ON (Existence) that reveals itself to humans
through human PHRONESIS (common sense) as the characteristics of the identity of the LOGOS of the
SYMPAN (Universe).
Plutarch states that ALETHEIA was the METRON (measure) of the general daily VIOS (biographical life)
of Hellenes due to their insistence on holding a truthful perspective as well as finding the true meaning and
value of things within context to their natural ANANKE (necessity). [Compare DOXA, GNOMĒ]
Pronunciation: Ȧmȧrtiȧ
Singular: Amartia
Plural: Amartiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Amartias: (singular) denoting that which derives from Amartia
Amartion: (plural) denoting that which derives from Amartiês
Common English translation: sin
Translated definition of the word:
AMARTIA refers to failure, mistakes, errors, faults and only metaphorically speaking disrespect or impiety.
AMARTIA is normally a fault or an unjust deed carried out due to incorrect evaluation of some information,
occurrences or possibilities. The manner in which the ancient Hellenes used the word AMARTIA bears no
resemblance to the Modern Greek Orthodox usage of AMARTIA as the transgressions of the laws of God
which constitute an irreversible and permanent evil. To the ancient Hellenes, AMARTIA is the result of a
mistake in judgement and clearly as such is different to an atrocity or abomination. It is not a curse which
burdens future generations like in the concept of 'original sin' or the 'sins of the fore-Fathers'.
Speusippos determines AMARTIA to be carelessness, a mistake, an error, or a deed not participating in the
common rationality of the universe, i.e. natural laws. Demokritos sites the reason for AMARTIA as being
ignorance of the greater good and Socrates probably meant the same when he said; 'no one is purposefully
Pronunciation: Ȧnêthiȧ
Singular: Anaideia
Plural: Anaideiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Anaideias: (singular) denoting that which is of Anaideia
Anaideion: (plural) denoting that which is of Anaideiês
Anaidis: (noun) denoting a person who acts with Anaideia
Common English translation: impudence
Translated definition of the word:
ANAIDEIA refers to the forms of boldness that are not considered ARÊTĒ such as audacity and behaviour
that is contrary to the unwritten ethical order of mortals as well as disrespect towards respected customs and
Plato considers ANAIDEIA to be the greatest KAKON (badness) within the personal and public VIOS
(biographical life) and as such, he considers that there must be enforced laws to deal with those guilty of
Pronunciation: Ȧnȧnkē
Singular: Ananke
Plural: Anankes
Other Forms of the Word:
Anankis: (singular) denoting that which is of Ananke
Common English translation: necessity
Translated definition of the word:
ANANKE derives from the verb 'anaso' meaning to dominate, raise or rule and the noun 'aggi' meaning to
squeeze or hug. The word ANANKE refers to a physical or ethical cause which brings an inevitable result.
Philosophically, ANANKE is the compelling nature; a force which regulates all that has taken place before
and all that is still to happen.
Empedokles considers ANANKE to be an ancient sacred institution or decree of the Gods. Demokritos traces
ANANKE to be the cause of all events as no event takes place without reason.
Within Hellenic polytheism, the concept was introduced by the Orphics and ANANKE is honoured as an allwise
Goddess who is a personification of the supreme universal power of absolute order. One version of the
theogeny places ANANKE as the daughter of Kronos while another states that ANANKE self-created when
the Kosmos self-created and ever since she has flowed within the course of the KOSMOS (World). The
THEOI (Gods) themselves are subject to the order of ANANKE. ADRASTEIA (the Inescapable) is the
daughter of ANANKE although sometimes ANANKE and ADRASTEIA are seen as one.
According to Plato, the MOIRAI (Fates), like ADRASTEIA are seen to be daughters of ANANKE.
Pronunciation: Ȧnthrēiȧ
Singular: Andreia
Common English translation: bravery, valour, honour
Translated definition of the word:
ANDREIA means masculinity, the manly spirit, the manly character and by implication bravery irrespective
of gender.
Socrates determines ANDREIA to be an EPISTEME (science/secure knowledge) of the appropriate attitude
one should have towards that which is fearsome and dangerous while Plato holds ANDREIA to be the
EPISTEME of what one should or should not fear. According to Aristotle ANDREIA is having courage and
daring in the face of danger, without fear of death and to prefer an honourable death to a live of disgrace and
shame. Furthermore, ANDREIA is the ARÊTE (Virtue) of people who act in a correct and logical manner in
every situation and who are absolutely free of fear or coercion.
ANDREIA has no relationship to THRASYTITA (rashness/audacity) as it is neither the experience of 'nofear'
nor is it excessive boldness. ANDREIA thus is the MESOTES (mean) between rashness and cowardice.
According to Speusippos, ANDREIA is the fearlessness of PSYCHE (Soul), battle-courage, deep GNOSIS
(Knowledge) of the art of war, self-control of PSYCHE, courageous confrontation of death, the persistent
observation of laws and generally the calmness of PSYCHE in the face of all that causes fear.
The Epicureans determined ANDREIA to be the ARÊTE (Virtue) which helps humans to stand resolute
against fear of the THEOI (Gods) as well as fears of death and pain that are illustrated to be foundless by
PHRONESIS (good sense/practical wisdom).
The Stoics considered ANDREIA to be one of the four parts of ARÊTE (Virtue) and as such it is defined as
the perseverance in the AGON (struggle/contest) for the secure GNOSIS (Knowledge) of the desired, the
undesired and the indifferent. Some Stoics even saw ANDREIA as the primary ARÊTE which is classified
under the Fortitudes.
Pronunciation: Ȧnôkhē
Singular: Anokhe
Other Forms of the Word:
Anêkhomê: (verb) I act with Anokhe
Common English translation: tolerance, forbearance
Translated definition of the word:
The word ANOKHE refers to that which is restrained or controlled and denotes the tendency of one to
confront painful and unpleasant problems with patience. ANOKHE is also used to refer to the cessation of
hostility between armies.
Pronunciation: Ȧnthrōpismôs
Singular: Anthropismos
Other Forms of the Word:
Anthropoi: (plural noun) the subject of Anthropismos (commonly translated as 'people')
Common English translation: humanitarianism, humanism
Translated definition of the word:
ANTHROPISMOS is one of the loftier concepts in Hellenic religion and philosophical thought. It refers to
respect towards the human condition. The concept was already in existence during Homeric times and is
referred to in both the Iliad and the Odyssey in the form of showing respect to XENOI (strangers), IKETES
[see IKESIA] and the poor in terms of PHILOXENIA (hospitality) and benevolence. Later,
ANTHROPISMOS was associated with PAIDEIA (education) as is illustrated in Diogenes Laertios'
assertion that the uneducated lacked ANTHROPISMOS.
Pronunciation: Ȧpȧrkhē
Singular: Aparkhe
Plural: Aparkhas
Common English translation: first fruit offering, the commencement of a THYSIA (sacrifice)
Translated definition of the word:
The word derives from the synthesis of 'apo' (from) and 'archomai' (I commence) and thus accordingly
APARKHE refers to the beginning of a ritual THYSIA (sacrifice/offering). It is also used to denote the first
fruits of a harvest which were given as an offering but also referring to 'the first and best' of anything.
Pronunciation: Ȧpērôn
Singular: Apeiron
Other Forms of the Word:
Apeirou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Apeiron
Common English translation: void, abyss
Translated definition of the word:
The APEIRON is that which is infinite, having no boundaries and no beginning or end. APEIRON is one of
the oldest and most important of philosophical terms. It is commonly used to refer to the quantitative and
qualitative expanse (infinity) that which is without end or boundary. It is opposite to PEPERASMENOU
referring to that which is limited, ordained or established and PERATOS which is limit, edge and
completeness. The perspective of APEIRON, regardless of angle, is that of eternal, timeless and never-aging.
APEIRON is an efficient and creative Being which has not been created, can never be destroyed and
potentially contains all things. In terms of quantity it is infinite and in terms of quality neutral but it produces
the diverse existences through simple qualitative determination and quantitative limitation. Anaximandros
considered that everything originates from the APEIRON and everything returns to it with the passing of its
existing form including the uncountable worlds which are considered to be Gods.
"APEIRON has no beginning but is the beginning of every other thing and everything is contained in it and
it has authority over everything because it is immortal and imperishable"
Aristotle from 'Physika'
It is impossible for two 'Apeirons' to exist simultaneously as nothing can exist outside it. Most philosophers
consider APEIRON to be a basic attribute of the universe, except for Anaximandros who perceived it to be a
first cause and not a Being.
Pronunciation: Ȧprêpiȧ
Singular: Aprepeia
Plural: Aprepeiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Aprepis: (noun) denoting one who acts according in the manner of Aprepeia
Common English translation: inappropriate
Translated definition of the word:
APREPEIA is one of the six KAKION (See KAKON) of the LOGOS (Reason) according to Erodianos, the
SAPHENEIA (Clarity) ASAPHEIA (Ambiguity)
KYRIOLOGIA (Precise Wording) AKYROLOGIA (Inaccuracy)
SYNTOMIA (To be Concise) MAKROLOGIA (Long-windedness)
EUSYNTHESIA (Good Composition) KAKOSYNTHESIA (Bad Composition)
EUPREPEIA (Decency or Appropriate) APREPEIA (Inappropriate/Indecent)
Pronunciation: Ȧrêtē
Singular: Arête
Plural: Arêtês
Other Forms of the Word:
Arêtis: (singular) denoting that which is of Arête
Arêtôn: (plural) denoting that which is of Arêtês
Common English translation: virtue
Translated definition of the word:
The word ARÊTE derives from the root 'aro' meaning to match, to join, to fit or to stabilise. The word
denotes excellence, perfection, nobility of origin, superiority, advantage and the worth or excellence of
someone or something in its field. Philosophically, ARÊTE is the steady orientation of the will towards the
AGATHON (Beneficial Good) as the most desired state for a human life. It is a conscientious and free
'active' wisdom which is distributed in portions or ARÊTÊS such as DIKEOSYNE (Justice), Generosity,
Valour, etc as opposed to the more sensual AGAPE [See AGAPE], Envy, Malice, etc. ARÊTE presupposes an
active subject such as the Just, the Courageous, the Generous, etc, who act according to clear Divine
principles in absolute contrast to the Malicious, the Loving, etc; who are dominated and possessed by the
senses. Thus ARÊTE is firstly an intellectual condition and only as such is it necessarily subject to
rationality. As a result of this, none of its foundations may be established on that which is perceived by the
The early poets and writers such as Homer equate ARÊTE with ANDREIA (Valour) in battle, Might and
Glory and even slightly later in time, ARÊTE is still associated with heroic deeds in battle. It is with Hesiod
that the divergence from his predecessors begins by references to ARÊTE as the ability of certain mortals
who are beloved by the Gods. Various philosophical schools held different ARÊTÊS to be the most
important. Xenophanes established the philosophical understanding of ARÊTE to be the highest SOPHIA
(wisdom) and more important than Might and ANDREIA (Valour). Pythagoras determined ARÊTE to be the
harmony of PSYCHE (Soul) and according associated AGATHON, Health and Divinity with harmony in
general. The Pythagorean stance is also adhered to by Socrates and Plato who maintain that ARÊTE
constitutes a unity made up of diverse branches which concern actions demanding GNOSIS (knowledge) and
PHRONESIS (practical wisdom). As a result of PHRONESIS, ARÊTE may thus be imparted and taught by
the philosophical mind and through the absolute understanding of the terms EUSEBIA (Devotion),
DIKEOSYNE (Justice), ANDREIA (Valour) and EGKRATEIA (Temperance) which determine the branches
of ARÊTE; e.g. a Just or Valorous deed may only exist as a result of a properly prepared intellect. Socrates
describes ARÊTE as correct sustenance; i.e. intellectual perfection and cultivation thus introducing 'the
ARÊTE of the Object' to describe the ARÊTE which refers to all things that the human genius has a natural
tendency towards when in search of TELIOTITA (perfection). ARÊTE according to Plato is the sole purpose
of PAIDEIA (education).
The Hedonists see ARÊTE as being an attempt by lawgivers to harness and restrain human greed for the
purposes of communal life. Cicero answers this standpoint by stating that unharnessed desire is the main
cause of criminal behaviour.
The Cynics saw ARÊTE as the purpose of VIOS (biographical life) and maintained that: "…societies are
destroyed when they can no longer differentiate between those who are good and those who are bad."
Furthermore, the Cynics believed that human happiness was to be found in freedom from all earthly
attachments and acquisitions and that through the mastery of ARÊTE all the wealth necessary could be
Speusippos and the Academics held ARÊTE to be the harmonious development of the abilities of the
PSYCHE (Soul) under the direction of the God Eros and thus could not be taught but could only be bestowed
upon mortals by the THEOI (Gods).
Furthermore, Aristotle perceives ARÊTE to be the 'mean' between two extremities while the Stoics subdivided
the ARÊTÊS into three types which had further sub-divisions. These ARÊTÊS were generally seen
as the opposite pole to KAKEIA (vice) which together with other opposites comprise the 'harmony of the
whole'. As such KAKEIA should not to be seen evil as opposed to ARÊTÊS as good but rather this polarity
should be perceived as the difference between the irrational animal nature of man and the rational ideal of
the Intellect.
Finally, the Neo-Platonists determine ARÊTE to be a prelude to EKTASIS (bliss) and thus a vehicle for
attaining mystical union with THEOS (God).
Pronunciation: Ȧrkhē
Singular: Arkhē
Plural: Arkhês
Other Forms of the Word:
Arkhis: (singular) denoting that which is of the Arkhē
Arkhon: (plural) denoting that which is of the Arkhês
Common English translation: beginning, origin, principle, authority
Translated definition of the word:
ARKHĒ derives from the verb 'arkho' meaning to begin, to oversee or to make offering of the first fruits. The
word ARKHĒ refers to a First Cause, beginning, dominion and authority. As a philosophical term, ARKHĒ
usually denotes cosmological first causes commonly found in pairs of opposites always indicating imminent
First Causes in the KOSMOS. Each philosophical school poses a different set of opposites as being the First
Cause but all agree that it is part of the KOSMOS as for it to exist outside of the KOSMOS would render it
unknowable to humans.
According to Aristotle, the ARKHÊS are always seen as Divine due to their self-generating and selfsustaining
natures by which their derivatives may be known.
Pronunciation: Ȧrrētôn
Singular: Arreton
Plural: Arreta
Other Forms of the Word:
Arretou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Arreton
Common English translation: ineffable, unspeakable, secret
Translated definition of the word:
ARRETON refers to that of which it is impossible to speak or describe. In general that which concerns
eternal things and Beings are ARRETA. The word also means mystical, secret and unknown.
Pronunciation: Ȧftôthēsiȧ
Singular: Autothysia
Plural: Autothysiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Autothysias: (singular) denoting that which is of the Autothysia
Autothysion: (plural) denoting that which is of the Autothysiês
Common English translation: self-sacrifice
Translated definition of the word:
According to Plato AUTOTHYSIA is an ARÊTE that combines self-sacrifice with the pursuit of posthumous
fame thus rendering it, like all other ARÊTÊS, to be rational but have no connection whatsoever to the desire
for martyrdom. [Also see THYSIA]
Pronunciation: Thêmōn
Singular: Daimon
Plural: Daimones
Other Forms of the Word:
Daimonos: (singular) denoting that which is of the Daimon
Daimonon: (plural) denoting that which of the Daimones
Daimonion: a neuter form denoting a lower Daimon
Common English translation: demon, spirit
Translated definition of the word:
DAIMON derives the verb 'daio' (to divide or separate, to sever or part) and the noun 'daϊmon' (the
knowledgeable, the experienced). Originally the word DAIMON referred to every immortal Being which
extends itself to the world of mortals while in the post Hesiodic era, it came to denote any secondary God.
In the Pythagoro-Platonic line, DAIMON was used to refer to the PSYCHÊS (souls) of higher mortals in the
service of a great God. After the 6th Century BCE, the DAIMONES became intermediaries between the
THEOI (Gods) and mortals, in a hierarchy of THEOI, DAIMONES, Heroes and Mortals. From the 4th
Century BCE, DAIMONES were seen as personal guardians, protectors, guides and tutelary spirits of
mortals. The Stoics transferred the tutelary functions to the DAIMON Ê'AUTOU. This is the concept that
everyone and everything is connected to the Eternal Whole and the Divine via an internal and personal
Divinity known as the DAIMON Ê'AUTOU. It is thus that which connect the human PSYCHE (Soul) with
Pronunciation: Thēmiourgôs
Singular: Demiourgos
Plural: Demiourgoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Demiourgou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Demiourgos
Demiourgon: (plural) denoting that which is of the Demiourgoi
Common English translation: creator, demiurge, skilled or public worker
Translated definition of the word:
The DEMIOURGOS is the practitioner of a beneficial deed for the common good. The word refers to the
Being which gave shape and order to the KOSMOS for the common good of all worldly things. The idea of a
DEMIOURGOS is aptly described by Seneca:
"We recognize Zeus as the ruler and guardian of the universe, as the PSYCHE (soul) and the PNEUMA
(breath) of the KOSMOS, principally responsible for its creation and to whom all names are fitting. If you
wish to refer to Him as MOIRA, you are not wrong. It is He, from whom everything depends, the cause of
causes. If you wish to call Him PRONOIA (Providence) you are equally correct. It is He whose SOPHIA
(Wisdom) provides for our world. If you desire to call Him PHYSIS (Nature), again you are not mistaken. It
is He from whom everything was born and from whose breath we have Life. If you want to call Him
Universe, again you are not wrong, as He is all that you see around you, He who exists within everything of
the mundane, He who defends Himself and all which is within Him."
Pronunciation: Thēmôs
Singular: Demos
Plural: Demoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Demotiko: In ancient use referring to that which is part of the Demos (translated as public). In modern times,
refers to folk traditions, folk music, etc.
Common English translation: municipality, city, borough, district, the public
Translated definition of the word:
Homer used the word DEMOS to refer to the inhabitants of an area and especially to those amongst them
who had wealth, power and who exercised authority. DEMOS derives from the same root as the word
DAIMON, namely the verb 'daio' (to divide) and the association between these two words was preserved in
the conception of the DEMOS in ancient Hellas as possessing divine attributes and being the DAIMON of a
particular community. THYSIÊS (sacrifices) were made to the DAIMON of the DEMOS and festivals were
held where youths of a certain age were introduced to the DEMOS through certain actions which were seen
as initiatory rites to the community. One such festival was the Apaturia. An even older one was the Damia
which was linked to the DEMOS and fertility as the THÊËS (Goddesses) Demetra and Persephone were
honoured as the bringers of civilization and prosperity. In certain cities such as Epidauros, these festivities
included mystery rites that only women were allowed to attend.
Pronunciation: Thiȧnēȧ
Singular: Dianeia
Plural: Dianeiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Dianeias: (singular) denoting that which is of the Dianeia
Dianeion: (plural) denoting that which is of the Dianeiês
Common English translation: the intellect, genius
Translated definition of the word:
According to Plato, DIANEIA is the word before it is verbalised. Speusippos states that it is the internal
secret dialogue between the PSYCHE (soul) and itself. The Stoics perceive DIANEIA to be the same as the
HEGEMONIKON of the PSYCHE and in essence the same as its product, ARÊTE. DIANEIA is also known
as the NOUS. [Compare NOUS]
Pronunciation: Thikêôsynē
Singular: Dikeosyne
Other Forms of the Word:
Dikeosynis: (singular) denoting that which is of Dikeosyne
Dikêos: (masculine) a man who acts in a manner that fall within the parameters of Dikeosyne
Dikêa: (feminine) a woman who acts in a manner that fall within the parameters of Dikeosyne
Dikêo: (neuter) referring to an act or deed that falls within the parameters of Dikeosyne
Common English translation: justice, righteousness
Translated definition of the word:
DIKEOSYNE derives from the verb 'deiknymi' meaning to bring to light, to prove or to reveal. A DIKÊOS
or DIKÊA is one who acts in accordance with the laws and traditions. DIKEOSYNE is one of the higher
ethical values of the Hellenic worldview, religion and thought and is a foundational characteristic of the
ordered KOSMOS. As a personification of this principle either the Goddess Dike (daughter of Zeus and
Themis) or the Goddess Astraia (daughter of Astraios and Io) are honoured. The rational and ethical being is
considered to be naturally opposed to any transgression of Dike (and as such in opposition to ADIKIA or
Injustice) not only against one's self but is compelled to defend against Injustice done to any other being,
thing or idea. It is an obligation in the name of our humanity to hasten in the defence of those who are being
treated unjustly.
Parmenides says that DIKEOSYNE is the Goddess which connects and supports the EINAI (Being).
According to Plato, DIKEOSYNE is the ARÊTE which keeps the impulsive and desirous portions of the
PSYCHE (soul) in check. Furthermore, according to the Platonic school, DIKEOSYNE is the tendency
towards the harmony of the PSYCHE and the order of the parts of the PSYCHE expressing itself through
social equity, law-abiding behaviour and the granting to each of what they deserve.
The Stoics expand further by stating that DIKEOSYNE demands first and foremost, retribution in that the
good must receive good and the bad must receive punishment. To grant good to bad would constitute an
injustice to bad.
Pronunciation: Thikhônēȧ
Singular: Dikhoneia
Plural: Dikhoneiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Dikhoneias: (singular) denoting that which is of the Dikhoneia
Dikhoneion: (plural) denoting that which is of the Dikhoneiês
Common English translation: discord
Translated definition of the word:
DIKHONEIA is the opposite of OMONOIA (Accord/Concord). DIKHONEIA may be understood as a
disagreement in perceptions or decisions, dissension from or opposition to an opinion. [Compare OMONOIA]
Pronunciation: Thōthêkȧeêthrôn
Singular: Dodekahedron
Plural: Dodekahedra
Other Forms of the Word:
Dodekahedrou: (singular) denoting that which belongs to a Dodekahedron
Common English translation: dodecahedron
Translated definition of the word:
The DODEKAHEDRON is one of the Platonic Solids and one of the five Pythagorean polyhedrons. Of the
Solids and polyhedrons, it is the largest in mass and surface, consisting of twelve equal sides in the form of
equiangular pentagons and twenty firm and unmoving points.
According to Timeos, the DODEKAHEDRON represents the phenomenal world as it describes 'All' and is a
picture of 'All' for it is a shape that is similar in shape to that of the Heavens.
Pronunciation: Thôxȧ
Singular: Doxa
Other Forms of the Word:
Doxas: denoting that which is of the Doxa
Doxasia: referring to when Doxa is offered
Common English translation: Opinion, Glory, Fame, Praise
Translated definition of the word:
DOXA is the subjective awareness and the simple opinion which does not demand to assert itself as
acceptable. According to Parmenides, DOXA refers to awareness based exclusively on what appears to be
(phenomenal), while Pythagoras places DOXA as one of the four supports of the human PSYCHE [see
AESTHESIS]. DOXA contains of elements of truth as well as elements of untruth. [Compare ALETHEIA,
Speusippos states that DOXA is an awareness that may be dissuaded through rationalisation or proved
accurate or inaccurate through application of the LOGOS (Reason).
Kelsos uses the word to refer to the impiety of DOXA inherent within the generalised perception of the
THEOI (Gods).
Pronunciation: Thrômênȧ
Singular: Dromeno
Plural: Dromena
Common English translation: Traditions to be acted upon
Translated definition of the word:
DROMENA derives from the verb 'dro' (to act) and refers to a dramatized sacred show, a religious
ceremony, a theatrical performance or a public spectacle.
Pronunciation: Êfthitētȧ
Singular: Efthyteta
Other Forms of the Word:
Efthēs: (noun) someone who acts with Efthyteta
Common English translation: directness, frankness, sincere, truthful
Translated definition of the word:
EFTHYTETA is the practice of being sincere and frank without hiding ones intentions. It is also a straight
route without diversions.
Pronunciation: Êgkrȧtēiȧ
Singular: Egkrateia
Other forms of the word:
Common English translation: Temperance
Translated definition of the word:
EGKRATEIA is self-control or internal restraint.
According to Speusippos, EGKRATEIA is the stability of the self when the parts of the PSYCHE (Soul)
manifest tendencies in opposition to the ORTHOS LOGOS (upstanding word).
Epicurus determines EGKRATEIA to be one of the ARÊTÊS (Virtues) which teaches us how not to be
distracted by temptations which produce dire results. EGKRATEIA as an ARÊTE is subject to
SOPHROSYNE (common sense) and if applied with SOPHROSYNE is not a denial and therefore stands as
the MESOTES (mean) between APOCHE (abstinence) and TRIPHE (indulgence). Hence EGKRATEIA is
not the concept of self-denial promoted by some monotheistic religions as such notions of self-denial are
more correctly referred to as APOCHE (abstinence). EGKRATEIA refers specifically to the AGATHON
(Beneficial Good) to be found in temperance and is thus an ARÊTE.
Pronunciation: Ēithōlôn
Singular: Eidolon
Plural: Eidola
Other Forms of the Word:
Eidolou: (singular) denoting that which belongs to an Eidolon
Common English translation: idol, image
Translated definition of the word:
The word EIDOLON means a perception, reflection, idea, a meaning, an image or likeness, an illusion as
well as an agreed depiction of the Gods. An EIDOLON refers specifically to an AGALMA (See AGALMA)
of a God or Goddess through which mortals worship the specific God or Goddess depicted.
Herodotus uses the word EIDOLON to denote the concept of 'Form' while Sophokles uses the word to
indicate the 'shades' of the dead.
Pronunciation: Ēikôn
Singular: Eikon
Plural: Eikonês
Other Forms of the Word:
Eikonas: (singular) denoting the Eikon when referring to something that derives from it or belongs to it, i.e.
the frame of the Eikonas
Eikonon: (plural) denoting the Eikonês when referring to that which derives from them or belongs to them,
i.e. the frames of the Eikonês
Eikonikos: representing a likeness, virtual
Common English translation: statue, image, picture, representation
Translated definition of the word:
An EIKON is an AGALMA (statue), a reflection in a mirror, a likeness and an example. EIKON derives
from the word 'eika' meaning to make the same. In Euripides' Medea (11.62) reference is made to the
'soulless' EIKON which laughingly stares out of the mirror at the body. EIKONA may also be used as an
adverb translated by the word 'as' meaning to the same extent or degree as well as the adjective 'like' meaning
resembling or similar in appearance. Hence Plato's Kratylos (400c) employs the phrase 'THESMOTIREOU
EIKONA' which means 'like a prison'. [Compare SIEMA, SYMVOLA, SYNTHEMA]
An EIKON is generally a representation of the real world or the creation of an imaginary one through the
medium of words or pictures. [Compare AGALMA, EIDOLON]
Pronunciation: Ēnê
Singular: Einai
Common English translation: to be, existence, it is
Translated definition of the word:
EINAI is the most important term of philosophical thought and is the statement of existence. It is the
substantiated infinitive of the verb 'eimi' (I am). EINAI is the term that refers to the general reality of
existence in contrast to MI EINAI (non-existence); the stable presence in contrast to GEGNESTHE
(becoming); the deeper essence of the beings in contrast to PHENESTHE (appearance). EINAI is identical to
the LOGOS as existence, the Platonic Idea and PHYSIS (Nature) in contrast to METHEN (zero/no-thing).
EINAI is also indistinguishable from ALETHEIA (truth) and self-revelation.
Parmenides describes the EINAI as being sustained without generation, degeneration, complete, existing
simultaneously (past, present & future), unique, unifying, one and continuous. He presents EINAI as
equilibrium which balances itself completely in everything, from its centre outwards. [Compare IPARXIS,
Pronunciation: Êkklēsiȧ
Singular: Ekklesia
Plural: Ekklesiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Ekklesias: (singular) that which is of Ekklesia
Ekklesion: (plural) that which is of Ekklesiês
Common English translation: assembly
Translated definition of the word:
EKKLESIA derives from the verb 'ekkalo' (to call out or call together). The word originally referred to the
EKKLESIA of the DEMOS and to the gathering of responsible people who performed the function of
legislators within a city-state. The word EKKLESIA includes within its concept the understanding of people
gathering for a specific purpose. During the Era Vulgaris the term was used by the christian church to denote
the collective of all the faithful with Christ as the head. Today the word has been further corrupted to refer to
the building wherein christians worship.
Pronunciation: Êklêktikismôs
Singular: Eklektikismos
Plural: Eklektikismoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Eklektikismou: (singular) denoting that which is of Eklektikismos
Eklektikismon: (plural) denoting that which of Eklektikismoi
Eklektikoi: (plural) they who practice Eklektikismos
Common English translation: Eclecticism
Translated definition of the word:
EKLEKTIKISMOS began during the era of the Roman Schools when the limits and boundaries became
vague and gave way to free choice of elements from various systems due to Roman excesses and the collapse
of social norms. The word EKLEKTIKISMOS most likely originates from the philosopher Potamon of
Alexandria who established the 'Eclectic School' during the reign of Augustus in which combinations of
elements of different systems was taught. The general perception of the time was one that allowed for the
freedom to choose any element which is considered useful or apt from any system in pursuit of finding
meaning in the 'Art of Living'. EKLEKTIKISMOS gained its greatest form in Alexandria, its place of origin
which was a melting-pot of various ethnic traditions from throughout the Roman Empire.
EKLEKTIKISMOS was an unrefined tradition comprised of the decorative usage of borrowed and
disordered elements of the near-extinct pure Hellenic and pure Roman traditions within Alexandria.
Simultaneously, it was in Alexandria that Abrahamic traditions incorporated aspects of the Hellenic
philosophical schools in works such as the Wisdom of Solomon, various Scholiastic books of the Pentateuch
as well as within Christian texts.
Pronunciation: Êlêfthêriȧ
Singular: Eleutheria
Other forms of the word:
Eleuthera: that which is free
Eleutherios/Eleutherotis: (masculine singular) he who brings Eleutheria
Eleutherotria: (feminine singular) she who brings Eleutheria
Common English translation: freedom, liberty
Translated definition of the word:
ELEUTHERIA is the state of being in complete control over self-realisation and movement. It was originally
used in Homeric times to denote someone who was not a slave and from there the concept developed into a
perfect political understanding of AUTOTHIATHESIS (self-determination), ISSONOMIA (equality before
the law), EUTHINE (responsibility), ISSEGORIA (freedom of speech) and PARRESIA (freedom to raise
one's opinion).
Xenophon equates the value of ELEUTHERIA to that of all the treasure in the world. Speusippos and Plato
both determine ELEUTHERIA, as the principality of VIOS (biographical life) to be self-determination and
personal authority over one's affairs. According to Aristotle, ELEUTHERIA is the TELOS (ultimate
purpose) of the system of Democracy in contrast to the TELOS of Oligarchy as the acquisition of wealth and
the TELOS of Aristocracy as the cultivation of PAIDEIA (Education) and the respect and obedience to the
Laws and Traditions.
To the Stoics, ELEUTHERIA is the rare intellectual state of SOPHIA (Wisdom) which through GNOSIS
(Knowledge) allows for the peaceful acceptance of changes even when these may be unpleasant. Seneca
observes correctly that the THEOI (Gods) possess the ultimate ELEUTHERIA from the moment they
ordered and determined the course of all things and became subject to that course. Thus destiny stands
superior even to the THEOI who are unwilling to change it. Because of this, each PSYCHE (Soul) has the
ELEUTHERIA of choice and not the ELEUTHERIA of action. It is only Conviction which is the true action
of PSYCHE and it is through it that the true ELEUTHERIA is attained when mortals imitate the THEOI
(Gods) in a total reconciliation to the flow of things. Therefore the person who has ARÊTE has
ELEUTHERIA as well even if in bondage as he endures to act only to that which depends on him while
remaining calm and controlled towards things which do not.
Pronunciation: Ênȧgismȧ
Singular: Enagisma
Plural: Enagismata
Common English translation: purification, cleansing
Translated definition of the word:
ENAGISMA derives from the synthesis of 'en' (one or unity) and 'agos' (respect, miasma, in need of
purification). ENAGISMA refers to the water which is changed into the medium for purification by a simple
process during a TELETE (ceremony) and placed upon the VOMOS (altar).
Pronunciation: Êpistēmē
Singular: Episteme
Plural: Epistemês
Other Forms of the Word:
Epistemis: (singular) denoting that which is of Episteme
Epistemon: (plural) denoting that which is of Epistemês. Depending on how the word is used can also refer
to a person who practices Episteme
Common English translation: science, secure knowledge
Translated definition of the word:
EPISTEME is one of the four Pythagorean supports of the PSYCHE [See AESTHESIS]. EPISTEME refers to
the precise, complete, systematic and verifiable and thus secure GNOSIS (knowledge).
Speusippos states that EPISTEME is the awareness of PSYCHE (soul) which is not subject to change by
LOGOS (Reason).
Plato made a clear distinction between DOXA (opinion) and indisputable EPISTEME (secure knowledge).
He determines EPISTEME to be that which is explicable through rational GNOSIS (knowledge). Aristotle
develops this concept by declaring that EPISTEME is "explainable and verifiable GNOSIS with regards to
the ARKHÊS (origins) and the AITIËS (Causes)". Aristotle further lists the characteristics of EPISTEME as
being; 1) Rational GNOSIS, 2) the GNOSIS that is provable and causal beyond discussion, 3) the path of the
intellect (deriving from DIANEIA) towards the unknown through the indirect to the known and recognised
ALETHEIA (truth), 4) the method of Syllogism to Definition and finally Establishment, 5) the GNOSIS of
the cause of each thing, 6) the preoccupation with the immovable and eternal OUSIA (Essence) of things and
finally, 7) that which originates from the multitude of empirical information to the destination of the one
overall common position which is true for all similarities or similar things.
The term EPISTEME in HELLENISMOS is synonymous with philosophy. However, in the Era Vulgaris
EPISTEME was separated from philosophy as the latter was banished into the realms of theology,
metaphysics and abstraction.
Pronunciation: Êrōs
Singular: Eros
Plural: Erotês
Other Forms of the Word:
Erota: denoting that which is of Eros
Common English translation: love
Translated definition of the word:
According to Plato and Speusippos, EROS is the outer influx of Desire towards Bliss. EROS is also an
attractive force of the Whole as a desire or a tendency but also with reference to the need of the Whole to
remain eternally AGATHOS (beneficial to all). [Compare AGAPE]
Pronunciation: Êtêriȧ
Singular: Etaireia
Plural: Etaireiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Etaireias: (singular) denoting that which is of an Etaireia
Etaireion: (plural) denoting that which is of the Etaireiês
Etairos: (masculine) male member of an Etaireia
Etaira: (feminine) 'Hetaira' in common English translation and referring to a female member of an Etaireia
Common English translation: association, society, company, partnership
Translated definition of the word:
A general definition of an ETAIREIA is a unified group of people with common purpose. The word in
particular refers to a brotherhood and political association in ancient Athens sometimes known as a
PHRATRIA or a company united through EROS.
Pronunciation: Êthniki
Singular: Ethnikos
Plural: Ethnikoi
Common English translation: heathen, gentile, national
Translated definition of the word:
ETHNIKOS derives from 'ethos' meaning 'a custom or habit' which generates the word 'ethnos' which was
coined by Herodotos to refer to people of common origin, common language, common religion and common
culture. Thus from 'ethnos' derives ETHNIKOS which refers to a person who is associated with anything to
do with ETHNOS. By association the word ETHNIKOI came to be used by the christian Romans of
Byzantium to refer to those who remained true to the religion and culture of their ancestors as opposed to
those who adopted the new religion and culture of christianity. In turn, the early christians used ETHNIKOS
to refer to someone who, in their opinion, was an idolater.
Pronunciation: Êvlȧvēȧ
Singular: Eulabeia
Other Forms of the Word:
Eulabeias: denoting that which is of Eulabeia
Eulabēs: denoting someone who has Eulabeia
Common English translation: devotion, devoutness, piety, respect
Translated definition of the word:
EULABEIA means discernment, attention, predictability and by implication respect towards the THEOI
(Gods). The word denotes the obligation of mortals to communicate often with the THEOI. In opposition to
EULABEIA stand the terms THRASOS (Insolence) and DEISIDAIMONIA (Superstition). [Compare
Pronunciation: Êvsêvēȧ
Singular: Eusebeia
Other Forms of the Word:
Eusebeias: denoting that which is of Eusebeia
Eusebēs: denoting someone who has Eusebeia
Common English translation: piety
Translated definition of the word:
EUSEBEIA derives from the root word 'sevein' meaning 'I worship', 'I honour' or 'I respect'. EUSEBEIA is
the power which leads to the honouring of the THEOI (Gods). It also means to have the correct perception
for granting honour to the THEOI as well as acting with DIKEOSYNE (Justice) towards the THEOI and
having EPISTEME (secure knowledge) of the honour due to the THEOI.
According to the Stoics, EUSEBEIA is one of the ARÊTÊS (Virtues) subject to DIKEOSYNE (Justice) for it
is DIKEO (Just) to grant the THEOI the respect they deserve.
A practical formula for EUSEBEIA is given by Ierokles:
"Honour the Immortal THEOI and respect the ORKOS (oath), as well as show respect to the bright Heroes
and the KHTHONIOI by doing what is proper as ordained by the ancestral law."
[Compare EULABEIA]
Pronunciation: Êxis
Singular: Exis
Common English translation: Hexis
Translated definition of the word:
The word EXIS denotes the natural power and wholeness of each thing.
According to Speusippos, EXIS is the tendency of the PSYCHE (Soul) which determines the EINAI (Being)
of each PROSÔPON (Persona).
Pronunciation: Gnômē
Singular: Gnomē
Plural: Gnomês
Other Forms of the Word:
Gnomis: (singular) denoting that which is of the Gnomē
Gnomon: (plural) denoting that which is of the Gnomês
Common English translation: opinion, truth (intuitive), discernment
Translated definition of the word:
GNOMĒ refers to the tool whereby one becomes aware or recognizes as well as denoting the Intellect, the
NOUS (mind) and its various functions, thought, judgement, discernment or the intelligence of the PSYCHE
(soul). Philosophically, GNOMĒ is a truth based on practical experience. It is the power of knowing and by
implication the result of the human striving for GNOSIS (knowledge). GNOMĒ is a stronger perception than
ENTIPOSIS (impression) but weaker than ASPHALOUS GNOSIS (secure knowledge). [Compare
Pronunciation: Gnôsis
Singular: Gnosis
Other Forms of the Word:
Gnoseon: (plural) derivatives of Gnosis
Common English translation: knowledge
Translated definition of the word:
GNOSIS refers to that which is wise, that which is learnt through critical examination as well as to that
which is grasped by the intellect. Philosophically, GNOSIS is the understanding of that which exists, the
comprehension of things, profundity and the confidence with regards to that which one knows to be real.
GNOSIS is the opposite of 'Belief' or DOXA (as the opinion of appearances). GNOSIS is secured through
witness, experience, constant study and/or secure reasoning. Those who dispute the existence of objective
reality (relativism) dispute the feasibility of GNOSIS. In Hesiod, GNOSIS is a possession of the THEOI
(Gods) which is transmitted to mortals via the Muses. Different philosophers had variations of the definition
of GNOSIS depending on whether they were relativists or not. However, they all agreed that GNOSIS is not
DOXASIA (opinion of appearances) which they determined to be a belief or the appearance of things.
[Compare DOXA, GNOMĒ]
Pronunciation: Ēthônē
Singular: Hedony
Plural: Hedonês
Other Forms of the Word:
Hedonis: (singular) denoting that which is of Hedony
Hedonon: (plural) denoting that which is of Hedonês
Hedonistis: (masculine) a Hedonist
Hedonistria: (feminine) a Hedonist
Common English translation: Hedonism, pleasure
Translated definition of the word:
HEDONY is physical pleasure as opposed to TERPSIS which is the pleasure experienced by the PSYCHE
(Soul). There were different and opposing schools of thoughts concerning HEDONY. Some considered it to
be unethical, catastrophic and as such to be avoided while others saw HEDONY, in either part or totality, to
be an ARÊTE (Virtue) as it participates in nature and/or should be pursued in the search for AGATHON
(Beneficial Good). Regardless of differences, all agreed that HEDONY was always physical and subject to
the senses.
Pronunciation: Ēyêmônikôn
Singular: Hegemonikon
Plural: Hegemonika
Other Forms of the Word:
Hegemonikou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Hegemonikon
Common English translation: Hegemony
Translated definition of the word:
The HEGEMONIKON is the part of the PSYCHE (Soul) which rules and guides all the others. The
HEGEMONIKON is considered to exist within the heart of all living things but in humans it is also known
as the NOUS (Mind) or DIANEIA (Genius). The complete maturation of the human HEGEMONIKON is
absolute rationality.
Pronunciation: Êllēnismôs
Singular: Hellenismos
Other Forms of the Word:
Hellenismou: denoting that which belongs to Hellenismos, commonly translated as Hellenic in English
Hellenês: denoting those persons who belong to Hellenismos
Common English translation: Hellenic, Greek
Translated definition of the word:
Within a Pre-Christian context, the word HELLENISMOS refers to the Hellenic or correct, proper usage,
practice or expression of the LOGOS [Compare APREPIA & LOGOS]. During the Byzantine era, the term
HELLENISMOS was used by the Emperor Julian to refer to the ancient Hellenic culture and religion. Thus
the words HELLENISMOS and HELLENES became synonymous with 'pagan' to the christians to denote
those who had not converted to christianity. The word HELLENE became a derogatory term and the
HELLENES who had chosen to keep to their ancestral culture and religion came to call themselves
ETHNIKOI to distinguish them from those who had become christian HELLENES. These christian
HELLENES referred to themselves as either the Romioi (Romans) or by the Latin word 'Grece'. The word
Greek derives from the Latin GRECE which was the term used by the Romans to refer to the HELLENES.
In the modern usage of HELLENISMOS, the word refers to everyone who is a HELLENE regardless of
religion. The terms Romioi and Grece are still in use and refer to the Greek Orthodox and Byzantine
christian culture. The term ETHNIKOI HELLENES is still used by HELLENES who follow the ancestral
religion and culture of ancient Hellas.
Pronunciation: Ēvris
Singular: Hubris
Other Forms of the Word:
Hubrêos: (singular) denoting that which is of Hubris
Common English translation: hubris, insult, audacity, shamelessness, disrespect
Translated definition of the word:
HUBRIS is insolence or impertinence from powerful exaggerated feelings which result from the
transgression of the METRON (Measure) as a rule in the form of unethical expression due to arrogance,
greed, excess or the blind pursuit of wealth and power. HUBRIS is determined to be audacity, shamelessness
and disrespect towards the ethical order of the KOSMOS. It is contempt for the THEOI (Gods) or violation
of the laws of PHYSIS (Nature). However, the reaction of the THEOI towards HUBRIS is not to seen as
punishment but rather the restoration of the balancing measures of the KOSMOS and is the responsibility of
the Goddess Nemesis. HUBRIS and its repercussions is the central theme of Hellenic tragedy which
illustrates the consequences befalling those who wish to raise themselves above the limitations of a human.
Hubris is to cause shame to the victim, not in order that anything may happen to you, nor because anything
has happened to you, but merely for your own gratification. Hubris is not the requital of past injuries; this is
revenge. As for the pleasure in hubris, its cause is this: men think that by ill-treating others they make their
own superiority the greater.
Pronunciation: Ēlē
Singular: Hylē
Plural: Hylês
Other Forms of the Word:
Hylis: (singular) denoting that which is of Hylē
Hylon: (plural) denoting that which is of Hylês
Hyliko/Hylikon: that which is Hylē
Common English translation: Matter, material
Translated definition of the word:
HYLĒ is an indestructible, eternal, spontaneous action with no beginning that comprises the building
component of the universe. HYLĒ is the unlimited Universal Essence. It is known, eternal but always new,
subject to metamorphosis but remaining permanent and stable despite its inherent state of 'Becoming'.
According to the Stoics, there are two primal components which comprise the first substance of the
KOSMOS. The one is qualitative and the other is passive/receptive or HYLĒ referring to that which is
always acted upon.
Aristotle states that HYLĒ is that which is susceptible to Form and Genus in opposition to ENERGEIA
(Energy and/or Force).
Under the Neo-Platonists, HYLĒ became an absolute KAKON (Bad) when devoid of PSYCHE (Soul).
Pronunciation: Ēemnôs
Singular: Hymnos
Plural: Hymnoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Hymnou: (singular) denoting a Hymnos when referring to something deriving there from or belong to it, i.e.
the words of the Hymnou
Hymnon: (plural) denoting Hymnoi when referring to something deriving from or belonging to them, i.e. the
music for the Hymnon
Hymnizo: (verb) meaning 'I praise'
Common English translation: Hymn
Translated definition of the word:
HYMNOS derives from the verb 'hexsymno' meaning to praise enthusiastically or eulogise. It is a poem or
song which is chanted in honour of the THEOI (Gods) or Heroes. Plato in 'The Republic' (607a) makes a
very clear distinction between the HYMNOI sung to the THEOI (Gods) and the praise given to mortals when
he states; "HYMNOI to the THEOI (Gods) and commendations to the good" while Euripides refers to
honouring the THEOI (Gods) with HYMNOI in Hippolytos (56). Due to its common etymological
association with the Divine name HYMENAIOS, the word HYMNOS is also used to refer to a wedding
song. HYMNOS differs from a MELOS which is a song deriving from a Tragedy.
Pronunciation: İthêȧ
Singular: Idea
Plural: Idêës
Other Forms of the Word:
Ideas: (singular) denoting that which is of Idea
Idêon: (plural) denoting that which is Idêës
Common English translation: Idea
Translated definition of the word:
An IDEA is an imperishable, universal movement or energy which is unchanging, self-determined and
independent being neither influenced nor directed from elsewhere.
In Platonic thought, IDÊËS are the Divine, eternal, incorporeal, intelligible and invisible Beings which are
reflected in the physical and perishing world. They are the basis of causation, the laws of structure and the
blueprint of everything that happens in the world of Becoming. The multitude of IDÊËS are unified in the
AGATHON (Beneficial Good) which is the supreme IDEA and first cause, giving essence and allowing the
other IDÊËS to exist. The religious needs or perceptions of mortals do not influence the IDÊËS, thus as a
result, they remain unchanged and eternal whether there are PSYCHÊS (souls) who perceive them or not.
IDÊËS may be interpreted through Pythagorean mathematical types as they both share the same properties
and attributes. Mathematical process becomes an intermediary between the world of IDÊËS and the physical
world. ALETHES (Truth), AGATHON (Beneficial Good) and ORÊON (Beauty) are the three aspects of the
Supreme IDEA through which all values and capabilities of awareness are generated and apply a powerful
attraction to PSYCHE (Soul) through EROS (Love) as they are easily perceived.
Pronunciation: İêrêiô
Singular: Iereio
Plural: Iereia
Common English translation: the sacrifice (specifically the animal which is being sacrificed to the THEOI)
Translated definition of the word:
IEREIO derives from the prefix 'iero' which is used to denote something or someone who has a relationship
to the sacred or the divine. The original noun 'ieros' refers to an association with the THEOI (Gods), religion
or religious activities. Hence the IEREIO is that which is sacrificed to the THEOI and through association
with the divine, it becomes sacred in the same manner as the other derivates of the word IEROS namely
IEREUS (masculine) and IEREIA (feminine) indicate the sacredness of a person through their association
with the THEOI and their acts of religion.
Pronunciation: İêrôn
Singular: Ieron
Plural: Iera
Common English translation: the Sacred, a Sanctuary, the Holy
Translated definition of the word:
IERON means 'strong' or 'powerful' and refers to all things individually or collectively (IERA) that develop
dynamically and perpetually for the sake of the phenomenon of Life. Any words, symbols, art, person or
place is an IERON when it refers to the mysteries of PHYSIS (Nature) or the world of the THEOI (Gods).
Pronunciation: İkêsiȧ
Singular: Ikesia
Plural: Ikesiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Ikesias: (singular) denoting that which is of Ikesia
Ikesion: (plural) denoting that which is of Ikesiês
Iketis: (masculine) denoting a man who is exercising Ikesia
Iketria: (feminine) denoting a woman who exercising Ikesia
Common English translation: supplication
Translated definition of the word:
IKESIA is a sacred institution in Hellenismos which falls under the auspices of the supreme THEOS (God)
when evoked as Zeus IKESIOS and Zeus IKTAIOS. IKESIA demands realisation in the name of the THEOI
for petitions, dispensation of DIKEOSYNE (Justice) or protection. An IKETIS or IKETRIA will direct the
IKESIA either at the altar of a God or Goddess or by falling at the feet of the person to whom the plea is
directed. An IKESIA is not an indiscriminate or general appeal for help. It is a petition or plea to fulfill an
immediate need and is aimed directly at one who is in a position to assist the IKETIS or IKETRIA. A refusal
to fulfill an IKESIA would contravene Divine Law and will lead to AMARTIA (error) and MIASMA
(pollution) for the one who receives and ignores the petition. IKESIA is linked to the Laws of XENIA
(strangers) and is the philanthropic aspect of PHILOXENIA (Hospitality).
Pronunciation: Ēpȧrxis
Singular: Iparxis
Plural: Iparxeis
Other Forms of the Word:
Iparxêos: (singular) denoting that which is of Iparxis
Iparxêon: (plural) denoting that which is of Iparxis
Common English translation: existence
Translated definition of the word:
IPARXIS is the EINAI (Being) itself. Firstly, it is the fact that things exist independent of individual
GNOSIS (Knowledge). IPARXIS is also the awareness of existing through experience and finally it is reality
which is experienced in opposition to that which is abstract and theoretical. [See EINAI]
Pronunciation: Κêrôs
Singular: Kairos
Plural: Kairoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Kairou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Kairos
Kairon: (plural) denoting that which is of the Kairoi
Common English translation: time (timely); weather (modern Hellenic)
Translated definition of the word:
According to Speusippos, KAIROS is the appropriate moment in time to fulfill a need or to accomplish that
which been sought for. It is the moment in time with co-operates with the AGATHOPRAXIA (Good Deed).
KAIROS refers to the suitable time for something or someone to act or be acted upon. KAIROS is generally
the ORTHO METRON (Correct Measure).
Pronunciation: Kȧlôn
Singular: Kalon
Plural: Kala
Other Forms of the Word:
Kalou: (singular) denoting that which is of Kalon
Kalon: (plural) denoting that which is of Kala
Kalos: (masculine) he who acts in the manner of Kalon
Kali: (feminine) she who acts in the manner of Kalon
Common English translation: good
Translated definition of the word:
Iamblichus records that according to the Pythagoreans, KALON is the order and symmetry which is good
and advantageous.
Pronunciation: Kȧkôn
Singular: Kakon
Plural: Kaka
Other Forms of the Word:
Kakou: (singular) denoting that which is of Kakon
Kakon: (plural) denoting that which is of Kaka
Kakos: (masculine) he who acts in the manner of Kakon
Kakia: (feminine) she who acts in the manner of Kakon
Kakeiês: (neuter plural) things that are Kaka
Common English translation: bad
Translated definition of the word:
According to the Pythagoreans, KAKON is disorder and asymmetry under which the physical HEDONY
(Hedonism) is classified.
The Stoics discerned between three KAKA: KAKEIES (Malice and Vice), KAKOURGIES (Crimes) and
PATHOI (Passions); To the KAKEIES belongs: Absurdity, Ignorance, Injustice, Unfaithfulness,
Possessiveness, Unreasonable Hostility, Cowardice and Thoughtlessness. To KAKOURGIES belongs: All
foolish and unjust deeds. To PATHOI belongs: All uncontrolled and excessive desires that are considered to
illnesses and defects of the PSYCHE (Soul) and therefore a disturbance to the HEGEMONIKON and by
extension to the whole of existence. KAKON is the polar opposite of KALON and can not be absent from
the KOSMOS as it is in attendance to ARÊTE/AGATHON. As all things are known and exist only through
their opposites, KAKON is useful in maintaining the harmony of the Whole and does not stand alone as an
absolute. In essence, a KAKOS or KAKIA is only self-punishing as he or she betrays their own nature whilst
degrading their own person to become an illogical and irrational animal. The absolute form of KAKON is
denied on the basis that it would be equated with Non-Existence as a polar opposite to Existence and
therefore not possible.
In Platonic thought, KAKON is associated with the body without a PSYCHE (Soul) in the duality of SOMA
(Body) and PSYCHE (Soul). This is a theoretical state as nothing was actually perceived of to be without a
PSYCHE (Soul). In this theoretical state and through the association of KAKON with the SOMA (Body), the
body is understood to be a prison and referred to as a TAPHOS (Grave) or SIEMA (Sign).
The Neo-Platonists slightly modified the Platonic standpoint by stating that KAKON is a result of the
necessary discrepancies from the unavoidable internal conflict between the AGATHÊS ONTOTITES (Good
Entities) in their attempt to support AGATHOTITA (Goodness).
Pronunciation: Kȧthȧrsis
Singular: Katharsis
Other Forms of the Word:
Katharmos: the act of Katharsis
Common English translation: catharsis, cleansing, purification
Translated definition of the word:
According to Plato and Speusippos, KATHARSIS denotes the cleansing from MIASMA (pollution) or the
separation of the KAKON (Bad) from the KALON (Good). KATHARSIS is the religious process of
Pronunciation: Khȧôs
Singular: Khaôs
Common English translation: chaos, space
Translated definition of the word:
KHAÔS is the permanently existing First Cause and the timeless, inert and unstructured 'Space' of Hellenic
cosmogony. It is not a disorder but an inert state which contains all potential within it. KHAÔS is a state
without which no existence is possible. According to the Stoics, one of the qualities of KHAÔS is fluidity.
Pronunciation: Khȧris
Singular: Kharis
Plural: Kharitês
Common English translation: grace, pardon, charm
Translated definition of the word:
KHARIS refers to the grace of the THEOS (God) Zeus as characterized by his three daughters Aglaia,
Euphrosyne and Thaleia. KHARIS is the causal element in making something KALON (Good), ORAION
(Beautiful) or pleasant. The KHARITÊS simultaneously refers to the 'gifts' of humans and the granting of
pardon from a higher authority due to 'love' of the object for the subject. When KHARIS is received it is
generally an act which produces a feeling of joy and well-being.
Pronunciation: Khthôniôs
Singular: Khthonios
Plural: Khthonioi
Other Forms of the Word:
Khthonia: (feminine) form of Khthonios
Khthonio: (neuter) something which is Khthonic
Khthone: a related epithet of specific Goddesses
Common English translation: Underworld, underground, infernal
Translated definition of the word:
KHTHONIOS refers to that which is of the earth, under the surface of the earth or domestic (local).
Sophokles (O.K.948) offers an example of the usage of the word to denote the local authority of the Areos
Pagos (Athenian High Court). KHTHONIOI is commonly used to refer to the Gods of the Underworld as
illustrated by Pindar (P.4.284) "khthonian manis" (the wrath of the Underworld Gods/infernal wrath).
Pronunciation: Kinônia
Singular: Koinonia
Plural: Koinoniês
Other Forms of the word:
Koinonias: (singular) denoting that which is of Koinonia
Koino (singular)/Koina (plural): that which is common between things or that which is public. Also referring
to a confederation of cities or states with equal rights and a single central administration. It is commonly
translated as 'federation' in English.
Common English translation: society, community
Translated definition of the word:
KOINONIA derives from the verb 'koin' meaning 'together'. KOINONIA is the highest degree of human cohabitation
which defines the totality of humans living in a specific place with at least some common interests
and ethos as well as having a clear and definite purpose. In more general terms, KOINONIA is a type of
human living which is governed by DIKEOSYNE (Justice) and PHILIA (Friendship) that allows for the selfsufficiency
and well-being of the Whole through participating in the organisational regulations. The higher
form of KOINONIA is the POLITEIA (State) and in Hellenic thinking, the two are one in the same. Only the
Romans distinguished between societas and civitas thus changing the understanding of KOINONIA to
something closer to ETAIREIA (association).
Pronunciation: Kôsmôs
Singular: Kosmos
Plural: Kosmoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Kosmou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Kosmos
Kosmon: (plural) denoting that which is of the Kosmoi
Common English translation: Cosmos, the World and its people
Translated definition of the word:
The Hellenic concept of the KOSMOS is a rational structure which is incorruptible, unborn (self-generating)
and the architect of its own internal order. The KOSMOS is synonymous with the Universe and was first
used in such a manner by Pythagoras. The word SYMPAN (Universe) consists of 'syn' (to add) and 'pan'
(the all) and refers to the whole of existence including HYLĒ (Matter), KHRONOS (Time), the forces, the
spaces in between, etc. The word KOSMOS refers to the part of the SYMPAN (Universe) that may act or be
acted upon and thus excludes the spaces in between. [See METAKOSMIA]
Pronunciation: Lôgikē
Singular: Logike
Plural: Logikês
Other Forms of the Word:
Logikēs: (singular) denoting that which is of Logike
Logikon: (plural) denoting that which is of Logikês and also meaning 'logical'
Common English translation: logic
Translated definition of the word:
According to the Stoics, LOGIKE is the science of correct and proper thought/reflection based on the four
ARKHÊS (Principles) of Understanding:
1. The ARKHĒ (Principle) of Identity: Every concept identifies itself.
2. The ARKHĒ (Principle) of Absence of Opposition: Every concept may not co-exist with its opposite.
3. The ARKHĒ of Exclusion of the Third: Between a concept and its opposite there may not exist a third.
4. The ARKHĒ of Sufficient Reason: Each and every thing demands to be explained adequately.
Pronunciation: Lôgôs
Singular: Logos
Plural: Logoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Logou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Logos
Logon: (plural) denoting that which is of the Logoi
Common English translation: reason, word, speech
Translated definition of the word:
LOGOS is the basic element of Hellenic civilisation which is correctly known as the Civilisation of the
Logos. The term derives from the verb 'legein' which refers to the ability to speak, utter sound, to reason, to
think, to reflect and to exercise LOGIKE (Logic) on a human physiological level.
According to Speusippos, LOGOS is human speech and the articulate voice capable of giving a name to
everything that exists. It is dialectic prose consisting of names and verbs.
The LOGOS for Plato is the mode of communication between the IDEAS (Ideas) or ARKHÊS (Principles)
and the intelligible forms of these IDEAS or ARKHÊS.
On a cosmological level, Proclus (in discussion of Plato's Timaeus) perceives LOGOS to be the sacred sound
and the first vibration in the evolution of the manifestation of the KOSMOS.
Herakleitos states that the term LOGOS describes an eternal and permanent cosmic Law. On the human
level, the LOGOS is that which leads a person to ORTHOGNOSIA (Correct Knowledge) and
ORTHOPRAXIA (Correct Deeds). The LOGOS is an absolute logical order which governs all development
in the flow of things.
In summary, the LOGOS denotes simultaneously a natural law, a rational principle of the KOSMOS (the
World and its people), a cosmic symmetry as well as human speech and thought.
The meaning of the LOGOS was originally distorted by Philo of Alexandria when the LOGOS was demoted
into being the word and son of Jehovah from its original conception of being self-generating and Divine in
its own right. In its distorted form, the LOGOS became subject to Jehovah's authority thus making him the
supreme controller of PHYSIS (Nature), KOSMOS and cosmic order as well as human speech and thought.
Pronunciation: Μêgȧlôpsēkhiȧ
Singular: Megalopsychia
Other Forms of the Word:
Megalopsychis: referring to someone who practices Megalopsychia
Common English translation: Magnanimity
Translated definition of the word:
MEGALOPSYCHIA is the ARÊTE (Virtue) of greatly beneficial and charitable deeds. It is the generosity of
the PSYCHE (Soul) and the ARÊTE of undertaking great things and proving worthy of them.
According to the Stoics, MEGALOPSYCHIA is classified under the greater ARÊTE (Virtue) of ANDREIA
In the Aristotelian model, MEGALOPSYCHIA is the ARÊTE (Virtue) which results through finding the
MESOTES (Mean) of the opposites of Debilitation (believing oneself to be capable when incapable) and
Faint-Heartedness (believing oneself to be incapable when capable).
Pronunciation: Mȧgēiȧ
Singular: Mageia
Plural: Mageiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Magika: acts of Mageiês
Magiko: that which is Mageia (magical)
Magos: masculine; he who performs Magika
Mageissa: feminine: she who performs Magika
Common English translation: magic/magick
Translated definition of the word:
MAGEIA is any attempt to influence parts of the cosmic whole through the exploitation of the close-link of
its components by the use of sympathy and harmony.
According to Plotinus, the supposed purpose of MAGEIA is the ascent of PSYCHE (Soul) to itself. When
the state of unity is achieved, PSYCHE becomes devoid of any external influence and thus in a perfect state
of purity. This ascent known as ANODOS is achieved via two paths; the EROTIKĒ and the
PHILOSOPHIKI. The first, EROTIKĒ, requires that one turns away from physical beauty and the second,
PHILOSOPHIKI, requires the reinforcement of physical predispositions. The driving force in both paths is
the God EROS. In contrast to Judeo-Christian mysticism, ANODOS is not an act of Mercy or Supplication
and exalts rather than denies human GNOSIS (Knowledge). Plotinus further disputes that MAGEIA is an
effective means of achieving ANODOS. His reason for disputation is that upon the THEASIS (view) of
herself, PSYCHE (Soul) is in complete union with herself and devoid of any form of XENO (foreign
influence). The true act of ANODOS is thus an act of PSYCHE turning inwards towards herself that stands
in opposition to MAGEIA, as an act of turning outwards towards other things to influence parts of the
cosmic whole.

Pronunciation: Mȧkȧriôtis
Singular: Makariotis
Plural: Makariotitês
Other Forms of the Word:
Makar: he or she who is in state of Makariotis
Makarês: they who are in states of Makariotis
Common English translation: bliss, beatitude
Translated definition of the word:
MAKARIOTIS is the principle characteristic of the THEOI (Gods). It is in direct opposition to the concept
of Divine Providence as MAKARIOTIS is an inert state. The MAKARÊS and Immortal Beings do not solve
problems nor do they experience or cause any. They do not anger, nor do they indulge or favour as these are
characteristics of weak beings.
Pronunciation: Mȧntiki/Mȧntēiȧ
Singular: Mantiki, Manteia
Plural: Mantikês, Manteiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Mantikis/Manteias: (singular) that which is of Mantiki/Manteia
Mantis: (masculine) referring to a male practitioner of Mantiki/Manteia
Mantitha: (feminine) referring to a female practitioner of Mantiki/Manteia
Common English translation: oracle/oracular, soothsaying, Mantic Art
Translated definition of the word:
MANTEIA is the ability and art of prediction of the future with the Theory of Sympathy as its basis. Plato
determines MANTEIA to be imperfect as it does not recognise the passage of linear time while Aristotle
concurs by stating that MANTEIA is an inconclusive EPISTEME (science/secure knowledge) as it is
concerned with hopes and expectations of the future.
MANTIKI can be divided into two types:
1. The direct: in which the timeless Divinity presents the next steps of the journey to those living under the
influence of time.
2. The indirect: This consists mainly of OIONOSKOPIA (auguries), the art of reading omens. An omen does
not cause the events but is linked to them as all things are linked to each other in a perpetual system.
According to Cicero: "the omen does not produce anything, but simply reveals the slow, unraveling of future
events" (as these events do not appear suddenly and without a reason). Cicero asserts that there are no wrong
omens but only wrong interpretations of them by people who are either ignorant or not well-versed in the art.
Pronunciation: Mêsôtēs
Singular: Mesotes
Plural: Mesotites
Common English translation: mean, middle
Translated definition of the word:
MESOTES is the central position between two extremes. It does not infer any state of mediocrity as Aristotle
determines that ARÊTE (Virtue) must be that which strives for the good and the excellent. Aristotle's
Nicomachean Ethics expands on this idea and offers many examples.
Pronunciation: Mêtȧkôsmiȧ
Singular: Metakosmio
Plural: Metakosmia
Common English translation: spaces (between KOSMOI/Worlds)
Translated definition of the word:
According to the Epicureans, METAKOSMIA refers to the (in-between) spaces between the KOSMOI
(Worlds) that are places of perpetual tranquility and bliss where the Gods dwell (Olympos). These spaces
provide for the continuous, inert and unchanging state that the Gods require; for if they dwelt in the everchanging
and perishing mortal world, they would be subject to change. [See KOSMOS]
Pronunciation: Mêtȧnēȧ
Singular: Metanoia
Plural: Metanoiês
Common English translation: penitence
Translated definition of the word:
The word METANOIA derives from meta (after) and noein (to perceive). METANOIA is the opposite of
PRONOIA (Prudence). It denotes an after-thought, a change of mind, a reconsideration or remorse.
METANOIA is an act which does not befit intelligent beings who have the ability to act with foresight.
METANOIA does not aim for the neutralization of a mistake for the soothing of the guilty conscience and
thus one should learn to extract the lessons from mistakes rather than regret them afterwards.
Pronunciation: Mêtȧphēsikē
Singular: Metaphysike
Plural: Metaphysikês
Other Forms of the Word
Metaphysikos Kosmos: Metaphysical World
Common English translation: Metaphysics
Translated definition of the word:
METAPHYSIKE is the concept of the study of the phenomena which exist beyond the physical world and
includes the study of the Absolutes which manifest the phenomenal in search of the one true being that lies
beyond these Absolutes. There is a misconception that derives from the philosophy of Aristotle wherein
unity is presented with two aspects; ontology (study of reality) and theology (study of the Divine). This is
however a misinterpretation as the original Aristotelian META TA PHYSIKA deals with the ontology of a
first cause for every being and for every IDEA (idea) as well as the philosophical theology of the Eternal and
Supernal and its cosmogonical relationship with the KOSMOS (World) and the human PSYCHE (Soul).
Pronunciation: Mêtrôn
Singular: Metron
Plural: Metra
Other Forms of the Word
Metrou: singular; denoting that which is of the Metron
Common English translation: measure
Translated definition of the word:
The METRON is a basic term in Hellenic thought. It is the essence of SOPHROSYNE (Wisdom). The
METRON consists of the logical rule for the evaluation, representation, expression and portrayal of
meanings and things as well as the correct adjustment of collective or individual human behaviour towards
the avoidance of disharmony and disturbance in life. It is the strong sense of the METRON which Hellenes
derived from the climate and environment of Hellas, their geographical place of birth and death. Within the
human life, the METRON consists of the respect for the limits which exist in principle for every human
endeavour, situation or particularity (attribute) that manifests in voluntary self-control in everything and at
all times. The transgression of the METRON is HUBRIS.
Pronunciation: Miȧsmȧ
Singular: Miasma
Plural: Miasmata
Other Forms of the Word:
Miasmatos: that which is of Miasma
Common English translation: pollution, contamination
Translated definition of the word:
MIASMA is a contamination of PSYCHE (Soul) in the form of localised vital energy. It is energetic,
dynamic and is usually a product of unnatural behaviour. MIASMA acts discordantly with animalistic and
psychosomatic influences. MIASMA is a polluted being which is created through abominations, foulness or
atrocity from either a shameful, profane or beastly human deed. People who incur MIASMA are usually
labeled as 'accursed'. MIASMA in Hellenic thought has a material dimension and is understood as an
invisible but material entity. This entity remains in a specified area and absorbs all positive elements while
multiplying the negative conditions of a specific environment.
Pronunciation: Mnēmē
Singular: Mneme
Plural: Mnemês
Other Forms of the Word:
Mnemis: (singular) denoting that which is of Mneme
Anamnesis: referring to recollection, revision and used by Plato to refer to the learning process whereby the
Psyche (Soul) recollects Gnosis (Knowledge) that is stored in the Mnēmē.
Common English translation: memory, remembrance
Translated definition of the word:
MNEME means remembrance, memory as well as the human capacity for memory as a cognitive power.
According to Speusippos, it is the psychological tendency which guards the truth existing within the
PSYCHE (Soul).
Pronunciation: Mystikismôs
Singular: Mystikismos
Plural: Mystikismoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Mystikismou: (singular) denoting that which is of Mystikismos
Mystikistis: (masculine) he who practices Mystikismos
Mystikistria: (feminine) she who practices Mystikismos
Mystikistês: (plural) they who practice Mystikismos
Common English translation: mysticism
Translated definition of the word:
MYSTIKISMOS is the irrational and incomprehensible attempt to approach the Divine and Eternal
ALETHEIA (Truth) through various techniques of direct contact with something that is supposed to be
simultaneously comprehensible and inaccessible. MYSTIKISMOS is irreconcilable with the Hellenic
worldview and appeared only in late Hellenistic times with the Neo-Platonists and then only through Eastern
influence. It is rendered irreconcilable by the fact that the Hellenic religion is essentially animistic and
therefore there is no transcendent 'inaccessible' within the SYMPAN (Universe) that may be contacted.
Contact with the THEOI (Gods) is not considered MYSTIKISMOS in the Hellenic religion as the Gods are
not inaccessible and exist within the SYMPAN (Universe). It is only MYSTIKISMOS when an attempt is
made to contact a Divinity which exists outside of the SYMPAN (Universe). As is evident, the concept of
MYSTIKISMOS within HELLENISMOS differs to modern notions of Mysticism in other religions.
Pronunciation: Mythôs
Singular: Mythos
Plural: Mythoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Mythou: (singular) denoting that which is of Mythos (mythological in English)
Mython: (plural) denoting that which is of Mythoi (mythological in English)
Common English translation: myth
Translated definition of the word:
To comprehend the nature of MYTHOS, it is firstly necessary to understand the fact that MYTHOS,
especially in its extremely important aetiological form, consists of the inspired and creative identification of
an exoteric and esoteric recording of events, of representation and abstract thought and expanded
consciousness and reason as well as literary and philosophical thought. MYTHOS is neither a simple 'cover'
for historical and natural knowledge nor a distortion of scientific or religious truths but, like philosophy, it is
a regular Ontology with a basic presupposition to secure a direct truth through identifying the 'Phenomenal'
and the 'Real'. MYTHOS stands in opposition to THRILLOS (Legend) which attempts to establish a whim
into common belief and consequently into history. MYTHOS is a transcendental form of universal and
timeless history which, in antithesis, to conventional history is not bound by reality or proof. Under this
definition, MYTHOS may be determined to be a high level folk tale which is part of a cultural tradition that
makes exceeding use of consciousness, common concepts and especially cultural idiosyncrasy for the
purpose of engraving ethics and cosmological or theological truths into the minds of people who, for various
reasons, are unable to enter into the world of abstract meanings. MYTHOS does not have a common source
or common chronological beginning but the fact that extremely ingenious and attractive creations are
presented is proof that their anonymous originators possessed a deep GNOSIS (Knowledge).
Pronunciation: Nôësis
Singular: Noesis
Common English translation: intellectual awareness
Translated definition of the word:
NOESIS is awareness through the Intellect, NOUS (Mind), thought or perception in contrast to AESTHESIS
According to Speusippos, NOESIS is the source of ARKHĒ EPISTEMIS (the Source of Secure Knowledge/
Science) while on Xenocrates' scales of the degrees of Knowledge, NOESIS is the highest degree of securing
Absolute ALETHEIA (Truth).
Parmenides determines NOËSIS to be an especial and general understanding identifying itself with the
EINAI (Being as a State of Existence) because all that exists participates in NOESIS. [Compare AESTHESIS]
Pronunciation: Nômôs
Singular: Nomos
Plural: Nomoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Nomou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Nomos
Nomon: (plural) denoting that which is of the Nomoi.
Nomikos: denoting a person or thing that participates in the acts of the Nomos (i.e. lawyer, legal document,
law-abiding citizen, etc)
Common English translation: law, rule, tradition, custom
Translated definition of the word:
Initially, the NOMOS was both an Institution as well as the authority to distribute; thereafter it became every
regulatory social decree. The totality of compulsory, objective, specific and general regulatory rules are
enforced within PHYSIS (Nature) through ANANKE (Necessity) in the form of eternal, ethical and natural
NOMOI. In human societies and states, NOMOS manifests through the legislative authority which, as a rule,
is directly or indirectly influenced by the cultural traditions and is sometimes referred to as the NOMOS
According to Speusippos, the Ethical NOMOS in human society is the totality of unwritten rules which
determine the basic ethical behaviour of its members. The Ethical NOMOS is adapted by the conjunction of
the information of Natural NOMOS and Customs/Traditions. Ethical NOMOS is generally considered to
reflect the eternal, ethical, natural NOMOS to which the civilised person is obliged to conform with.
Pronunciation: Nôeöomênôn
Singular: Noumenon
Plural: Noumena
Common English translation: comprehension, understanding (intellectual)
Translated definition of the word:
NOUMENON refers to all that may become known through the understanding of the Intellect as opposed to
PHENOMENON which is perceived by the senses. The Platonic IDÊES (Ideas) constitute the NOUMENON
par excellence. [Compare PHENOMENON]
Pronunciation: Nous
Singular: Nous
Common English translation: mind
Translated definition of the word:
NOUS means understanding, thought, perception and the power to perceive or discern.
According to Anaxagoras, the NOUS is the initial power that created the Order of the KOSMOS (World) and
is the cause of movement in the APEIRON (Void). The NOUS is the creator of all, which it composes
through a multitude of invisible particles called SPERMATA (Sperm/Seeds) or KHRYMATA which are
unborn, imperishable and unchangeable.
Aristotle testifies to the belief that the NOUS is the originator of PSYCHE (Soul) in each life form (animal,
vegetable and mineral) and derives from the Divine NOUS in the same way as a unit may produce the
According to Pythagoras, the NOUS is one of the four supports of the human PSYCHE (Soul). See
AESTHESIS for an account of the four supports. [Compare DIANEIA]
Pronunciation: Ēekôs
Singular: Oikos
Plural: Oikoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Oikogenia: referring to the members of the Oikos
Common English translation: household, home
Translated definition of the word:
OIKOS in its original form denotes simultaneously the house (building), the members of the family living
within the OIKOS, the estate, the goods belonging to the estate and is inclusive of extended family, servants
and employees. OIKOS also refers to the particular dynastical families such as the OIKOS Agamemnon or
the OIKOS Herakleides, etc.
Pronunciation: Ômēôs
Singular: Omoios (masculine)
Plural: Omoioi (masculine)
Other Forms of the Word:
Omoia: (singular feminine)
Omoiês: (plural feminine)
Omoiosis: refers to the process of becoming Omoios or Omoia
Common English translation: equals, the same
Translated definition of the word:
OMOIOS refers to a person becoming equal or the same rather than changing and becoming different. It is
the human ability to approach the THEOI (Gods) in an attempt to simulate the Divine characteristics on an
analogous human level. Thus when one becomes an OMOIOS with anyone else or within the context of a
group or society, one gains the characteristics which define that individual, group or society.
Pronunciation: Ômônēȧ
Singular: Omonoia
Plural: Omonoiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Omonoias: (singular) referring to that which is of Omonoia
Common English translation: accord, concord
Translated definition of the word:
OMONOIA is unity or identity with sensibility and is the opposite of DIKHONEIA (Discord).
According to Speusippos, OMONOIA is the good communion between all beings and agreement in
perception and resolution. OMONOIA is also the Hellenic Goddess NIKE. [Compare the opposing
Pronunciation: Ômphȧlôs
Singular: Omphalos
Plural: Omphaloi
Other Forms of the Word:
Omphalou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Omphalos
Omphalon: (plural) denoting that which is of the Omphaloi
Common English translation: navel, centre
Translated definition of the word:
OMPHALOS has the same root as OMPHĒ (The Divine Voice). The OMPHALOS is a point which is
recognised as a centre point of a system or area; e.g. the OMPHALOS of a POLIS (State) is the centre of the
POLIS and the civic OMPHALOS refers to the VOMOS (Altar) as the centre of public worship. On a
cosmological level, the OMPHALOS is the enduring, fixed and indestructible centre of the KOSMOS
(World), out of which the KOSMOS radiates and to which it returns for stability and EUNOMIA (Good
Government, Law and Order).
Pronunciation: Ôn
Singular: On
Plural: Onta (pronounced Ôndȧ)
Other Forms of the Word:
Ontos On: (Noun) the 'Real Being' and the source of all Entities
Ontotita: (Noun) the characteristics of an Entity
Onton: (Noun) used to refer to the Onta when discussing their characteristics/attributes or something
deriving from them.
Common English translation: being, entity, creature
Translated definition of the word:
ON is the substantiated participant of the verb 'eimi' (meaning 'I am' and deriving from the EINAI with
reference to existence). Cosmologically, the word ON denotes that which objectively exists in reality and is
equivalent to the totality of the apportioned ONTA (the thing without its characteristics or attributes).
Melissos supports the idea that the ON like the KOSMOS (World) is unified, eternal, vast, unmoving and
absolutely equal to itself. ON is eternal because if it was made before it was created/born it would have been
nothing and if it was nothing it could not exist as nothing can be created from nothing.
Herakleitos determines the ON to be 'everlasting fire' which perpetually burns and is extinguished with the
METRON (Measure) changing into various forms without ever losing its identity, simply becoming water,
air and earth which in turn returns to fire through the process of transmutation. Every transmutation
maintains the balance of PHYSIS (Nature) and the quantities of mass. The opposites are not exclusive and
independent OUSIÊS (essences/substances) but simply different manifestations of fire. As the ON agrees
and disagrees only with itself, the SYMPAN (Universe) is constructed through the assembly of counterpoint
forces which constitute the PALINTONOS ARMONIE (Tension of the Opposites).
The Stoics teach the unity of the ON through the 'oneness' of the KOSMOS (World) which consists of two
ARKHÊS (Principles); 1) Quality [LOGOS and THEOS] which is the active ARKHĒ and 2) that which
suffers [HYLĒ without Attributes].
ONTOS ON is the source of all the ONTA and G.G. Plethon associates it with Zeus. [Related words EINAI,
Pronunciation: Ônômȧ
Singular: Onoma
Plural: Onomata
Other Forms of the Word:
Onomatos: (singular) denoting that which is of Onoma
Common English translation: name
Translated definition of the word:
Plato determines ONOMA to be a tool which teaches and leads to clear distinction of the essence of things.
According to Speusippos, it is a singular directive voice which interprets the essence of anything which is
not self-declaring.
Pronunciation: Ōraiôn
Singular: Oraion
Plural: Oraia
Other Forms of the Word:
Oraiotita: (noun) attributes or characteristics of Oraion
Oreos: (masculine noun) he who is Oraion
Orea: (feminine noun) she who is Oraion
Common English translation: beauty
Translated definition of the word:
ORAION is all that is in accordance with the Horai, i.e. EUNOMIA (Good Order), DIKE (Justice) and
EIRENE (Peace). As such ORAION is an example for each human action and creation as well as being a
vehicle for the perfect adaptation of humanity to the universal physical and ethical ARMONIA (Harmony). It
is the understanding and application of the ORAION and the TELEION (Perfection: See TELOS) which
shaped and made the Hellenic civilization undisputedly special.
Aristotle maintains that ORAION may be approached through the laws of LOGIKI (Logic) while its
presuppositions are; Symmetry, Size and TAXIS (order). Thus each thing which is made up of different parts
is ORAION when these parts are arranged in an orderly manner and in relation to their size.
Pronunciation: Ôrkôs
Singular: Orkos
Plural: Orkoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Orkou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Orkos
Orkon: (plural) denoting that which is of the Orkoi
Orkizomenos: (masculine) he who takes the Orkos
Orkizomene: (feminine) she who takes the Orkos
Common English translation: oath, promise, pact
Translated definition of the word:
ORKOS is an appeal to the THEOI (Gods) when making serious promises to which it is deemed expedient to
have the THEOI bear witness. An ORKOS is always taken in front of a VOMOS (Altar) upon which the
ORKIZOMENOS/ORKIZOMENE lays a hand while swearing the ORKOS. An ORKOS is always
accompanied by THYSIA (Sacrifice) and SPONDAI (Libations). This THYSIA (Sacrifice) is not eaten but
either burnt or cast into the sea/river.
Pronunciation: Ôrthôprȧxiȧ
Singular: Orthopraxia
Plural: Orthopraxiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Orthopraxias: (singular) denoting that which is of Orthopraxia
Orthopraxion: (plural) denoting that which is of Orthopraxiês
Common English translation: orthopraxy, correctitude
Translated definition of the word:
According to Socrates, good or correct actions are those which serve to the true benefit of humans and
produce EUDAIMONIA (well-being). These good or correct actions are what are known as
Pronunciation: Ôrthôs Lôgôs
Singular: Orthos Logos
Common English translation: no corresponding phrase; directly translated as 'the upstanding word'
Translated definition of the word:
ORTHOS LOGOS refers to the LOGOS of the SYMPAN (Universe) as the prototype for the conformation
of all humans. According to the Stoics, the ORTHOS LOGOS is a 'common law' that extends to all things
and is identified with Zeus and PHYSIS (Nature). [See LOGOS]
Pronunciation: Ôsiôn
Singular: Osion
Plural: Osia
Other Forms of the Word:
Osiou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Osion
Common English translation: holy, sacred
Translated definition of the word:
OSION means the sacred and the pure. It refers to all that is sacred or allowed by the Gods to be sacred and
is also the Natural NOMOS (Law) as DIKEOSYNE (Justice).
According to Speusippos, OSION is that which is dear to the Gods as well as the fitting and acceptable
restitution of honour to the Gods.
Pronunciation: Oosiȧ
Singular: Ousia
Plural: Ousiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Ousias: (singular) referring to a characteristic/quality of Ousia, i.e. the density of the Ousias.
Ousion: (plural) referring to a characteristic/quality of Ousiês, i.e. the similarity between Ousiês
Common English translation: substance, essence, taste, flavour
Translated definition of the word:
OUSIA is the subject of the verb 'eimi' (I am) and its participation (ON [ΩΝ]-Being; OUSA-Female Being;
ON [ΟΝ]-Male Being). OUSIA is the eternal substance and essence of ONTON (Beings - See ON). OUSIA
is independent, self-sufficient, vast, undivided and stable. It exists outside of the 'self' and is aware of the
'self' without the need of another ON. According to Anaximander, the initial OUSIA is entirely undetermined
and without determined attributes. The multitude of attributes and forms become substantial only because the
elements of the OUSIA periodically produce DIKEOSYNE (Justice) towards all. [See ON]
Pronunciation: Οοthên ex Oothênôs
Common English translation: Nothing comes from nothing.
Translated definition of the word:
The phrase OUTHEN EX OUTHENOS is a foundational axiom in the Hellenic worldview which states that
nothing may be produced out of the nothing and nothing belongs to the 'no-thing'. The KOSMOS (world)
arose out of itself without external cause and the only transient and unstable IPARXIS (existence) within it is
that of the specific things which undergo various metamorphoses as they change from one thing to another
(Becoming). However, the basic foundational HYLĒ (First state of Matter) remains permanent, eternal and
indestructible regardless of how many times it may change its form.
Pronunciation: Pêthēiȧ
Singular: Paideia
Plural: Paideiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Paideias: (singular) denoting that which is of Paideia
Common English translation: education
Translated definition of the word:
The ideal of PAIDEIA is seen as enabling people to be able to give to others the right to reason as well as the
right to understand what others are saying. According to Plato, the purpose of PAIDEIA is the ARÊTE of
anything that is in existence (both abstract and material) with the purpose of producing a complete and
perfect citizen through knowledge of their craft and of ruling and being ruled according to the demands of
DIKEO (a just act). Amongst other things, the POLITEIA (State) is responsible for the development and
grooming of the people, thus the quality of PAIDEIA determines whether the POLITEIA (State) will have
good or bad citizens. PAIDEIA is the cultivation of a noble PSYCHE (Soul) and falls under the auspices of
the God Apollon and is his divine gift to mankind.
Pronunciation: Pȧlintônôs Ȧrmôniē
Common English translation: Tension of the Opposites
Translated definition of the word:
PALINTONOS ARMONIE is a phrase that refers to a counterbalancing assembly or harmony that is
stretched equally in opposite directions.
According to Herakleitos, the SYMPAN (Universe) is constructed of forces in PALINTONOS ARMONIE
which are not independent OUSIÊS (Beings) but only various manifestations of Fire illustrating that the ON
(Being) agrees and disagrees only with itself. Even though the concept inherent within PALINTONOS
ARMONIE describes the balance of the contraction and expansion of the ON, the term was never used by
the philosopher himself but only by subsequent people to explain Herakleitan reasoning.
Pronunciation: Pȧnspêrmiȧ
Plural (no singular form): Panspermia
Common English translation: all-grain, all-seed
Translated definition of the word:
PANSPERMIA derives from 'pan' (all) and 'sperma' (seed) and is used to denote the all-grain breads that are
offered to the THEOI (Gods).
Pronunciation: Pȧrrēsiȧ
Singular: Parresia
Other Forms of the Word:
Parresias: (singular) that which is of Parresia
Common English translation: frankness, outspokenness, honesty, sincerity
Translated definition of the word:
PARRESIA is the expression of personal opinion with courage and honesty. Euripides and Aristophanes
used PARRESIA to denote freedom of speech while Plato in Gorgias uses the word to refer to having the
courage to raise an opinion.
Pronunciation: Pȧthôs
Singular: Pathos
Plural: Pathoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Pathous: (singular) denoting that which is of Pathos
Pathon: (plural) denoting that which is of Pathoi
Common English translation: pathos, passion
Translated definition of the word:
Speusippos defines PATHOS to be a natural and instinctual drive of PSYCHE (Soul). The Stoics further
explain that the PATHOI are uncontrolled and without measure superfluous needs which may be considered
as illnesses and disabilities of the PSYCHE (Soul). The PATHOI disturb the HEGEMONIKON (ruling part
of PSYCHE) and by extension the whole of existence [See HEGEMONIKON & KAKON]. Zeno, the Stoic,
states that PATHOI are illogical drives of PSYCHE (Soul) and are in contrast to PHYSIS (Nature). When
external influences tempt the HEGEMONIKON, the natural and instinctive needs become PATHOI which
lead people to unnatural and absurd deeds.
The Stoics list the following PATHOI:
1. EPITHEMIA: Referring to desires and the irrational appetite which is further distinguished into SPANĒ
(scarcity as the desire for what we cannot have), MISOS (hatred as the desire for inflicting KAKON onto
others), PHILONIKIA (quarrelsomeness as the tendency and insistence towards quarreling), THYMO
(anger as the desire for direct and instant retaliation and/or revenge), POTHO (specifically the desire for
another person who caught one's fancy), MĒNI (wrath as the desire for long term revenge), PHILARGYRIA
(desire and passion for money as the perception that money is of itself a good thing) and KOTO (rage as the
surging of anger).
2. PHOBOS: Referring to fear and the anticipation of bad things happening and these are further
distinguished into DEIMA (terror), OCKNO (laziness as the fear of taking action), AISKHYNĒ (shame and
disgrace as the fear of humiliation), EKPLĒXĒ (surprise as the fear of the unexpected), THORYBO (noise)
and AGONIA (suspense/anxiety as the fear of the unknown).
3. HEDONY: Referring to pleasure and the irrational arrogance resulting from possession and is
distinguished into the following; DIAXYSĒ (diffusion and expansion as being pleasured by flattery),
EPIKHAIREKAKIA (gloating as taking pleasure in the misfortune of others) and KĒLĒSĒ (debauchery).
4. LYPES: Referring to sorrow, grief, affliction and defined as the irrational reaction of PSYCHE (soul) of
which the most common are EILEO (misery and wretchedness as unjust sorrow), PHTHONOS (envy as the
sorrow of seeing the wealth of others), ZELO (jealousy), AKHTHOS (burden as the sorrow when others
take or acquire that which we possess from us), PENTHOS (mourning and grief as the paralyzing sorrow),
ANIA (weariness, tediousness as the sorrow which increases through thought) and OTHINĒ (psychological
pain and grief as the deep sorrow).
Pronunciation: Phȧntȧsiȧ
Singular: Phantasia
Plural: Phantasiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Phantasias: (singular) denoting that which is of Phantasia
Phantasion: (plural) denoting that which is of Phantasiês
Phantasma: a shade of a dead person.
Common English translation: imagination
Translated definition of the word:
PHANTASIA is the appearance or countenance of each thing and the power through which any meaning is
perceived by the NOUS (Mind). It is AESTHESIS as the vehicle of sensory information which produces a
PHANTASIA in the form of a representation, picture or impression. PHANTASIA is sometimes seen as the
Pronunciation: Phênômênôn
Singular: Phenomenon
Plural: Phenomena
Other Forms of the Word:
Phenomenou: (singular) denoting that which is phenomenal
Common English translation: phenomenon
Translated definition of the word:
The word PHENOMENA refers to all that may be subject to AESTHESIS (as sensory information). While
sensing is a common characteristic of humans and animals, perception is a human trait.
According to Herakleitos, visible indications in the form of PHENOMENA reveal GNOSIS (knowledge) of
the invisible and ALETHEIA (Truth) and as such are divine SYMBOLA (symbols).
Alkmaeon clarifies Herakleitos' statement in his explanation that a collection of indications (clues) is the first
stage of the method of 'Knowing' through which one reaches conclusions by using conjecture thus the
information that is offered by the senses is the first step in the approach towards the invisible. [Compare
Pronunciation: Philiȧ
Singular: Philia
Plural: Philiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Philias: (singular) denoting that which is of Philia
Philos: (masculine) he who participates in Philia
Phili: (feminine) she who participates in Philia
Common English translation: friendship
Translated definition of the word:
PHILIA is a relationship of friendship, dedication and respect as opposed to EKHTHROTITA (enmity).
PHILIA is one of the higher ARÊTÊS; being both a sacred bond and a basic source of joy as its main aim is
mutual benefit. PHILIA is a relationship between people which personifies all types of unions and
participates in the understanding of the AGATHON (beneficial good) in all spheres of human life. PHILIA is
valuable to all those which it manages to join and is based in EILIKRINEIA (sincerity), APHILOKERDIA
(unselfishness) and mostly one's willingness to serve the meaning of PHILIA through ANOTEROTITA
(excellence) as the foundation of PHILIA. PHILIA is pure and therefore void of any selfishness or egotism.
Pronunciation: Philôsôphiȧ
Singular: Philosophia
Plural: Philosophiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Philosophos: someone who is practices Philosophia
Common English translation: philosophy
Translated definition of the word:
The term PHILOSOPHIA was first coined by Pythagoras when he reasoned that the THEOI (Gods) were the
only SOPHOI (wise beings) in existence and therefore a human could only become a PHILOS (friend) of
SOPHIA (Wisdom). This is the most relevant definition of the word and is considered, in short, to be the first
EPISTEME (secure knowledge/science) concerned with the GNOSIS (knowledge) of ALETHEIA (Truth).
Thus a PHILOSOPHOS would be someone who makes an effort to approach the THEOI and achieve
THEASIS (the view of the THEOI).
Pronunciation: Philôtēs
Singular: Philotes
Plural: Philotites
Other Forms of the Word:
Common English translation: friendship
Translated definition of the word:
PHILOTĒS is one of the two first moving causes of all mortal beings. It is the first cause of human
generation, their adaptability and the cause of every opposing duality concerned therewith.
Empedokles states that PHILOTĒS is ARMONIA (Harmony), GETHOSYNE (Joy and Delight) and the
Goddess Aphrodite/Kypris. Sophocles declares that PHILOTĒS is inherent in human nature as humans
"were not born to hate but to love" (from Antigone).
Pronunciation: Phrônēsis
Singular: Phronesis
Common English translation: sensibility, common sense, practical wisdom
Translated definition of the word:
PHRONESIS is intent, purpose, practical wisdom and also refers to the deed that has been thought out
(action with foresight). It is an ARÊTE (Virtue) and a supreme AGATHON (Beneficial Good) that is most
important and sacred as through it we ensure ORTHOPRAXIA (correct deeds).
According to Aristotle, the lack of PHRONESIS negatives the existence of all other ARÊTÊS (Virtues).
Speusippos determines PHRONESIS to be the GNOSIS (Knowledge) of what must or must not be acted
upon based upon sound GNOSIS (Knowledge) of KALON (Good) and KAKON (Bad).
For Demokritos, the existence of PHRONESIS requires the pre-existence of EUBOULEIA (Reason as the
rational and correct examination of the relationship between the self and its external environment or
situation). PHRONESIS is thus an ARÊTE (Virtue) of human logic. From PHRONESIS, whom Demokritos
declares to be the Goddess Athena called Tritogenia, derive three Divine gifts; EU LOGIZESTHAI (Good
Thinking/Pure Thoughts), EU LEGEIN (Wise Speech) and PRATEIN A THEÏ (Doing what is right).
The Stoics consider PHRONESIS to be one of the four ingredients of ARÊTE (Virtue) that determine the
human ability to think and act in rational manner thus avoiding PATHON (Desires/Passions) and achieving
GNOSIS (Knowledge) of the self and peace for PSYCHE (Soul).
Pronunciation: Phēsis
Singular: Physis
Other Forms of the Word:
Physêos: that which is of Physis
Physikos: (1) That which is Natural; (2) A Physicist
Common English translation: Nature
Translated definition of the word:
The word PHYSIS derives from the verb 'phyo' meaning to develop, to generate and to produce. PHYSIS
has the double meaning of both declaring the process of generating as well its being its result, i.e. the
properties as well as the construct itself.
In accordance with the philosophy of Herakleitos, PHYSIS is the substantiation of the EINAI (Being)
through (a) the dynamic collective of ONTON (beings/entities), (b) the self-unfolding emergent SYMPAN
(Universe) and (c) the perpetual revealing of the ON (Entity) which follows and is followed by the perpetual
refolding of itself.
PHYSIS is the First, Last and Only reality whose unceasing force is the birth, growth and destruction of the
apportioned and distinct manifestations.
According to Homer, Theognis and Pindar, the associated terms PHYE or PHYA declare external beauty,
noble countenance and imposing stature.
Pronunciation: Pistis
Singular: Pistis
Other Forms of the Word:
Pistêos: that which is of Pistis
Pistos: (masculine singular) he who acts in the manner of Pistis
Pistē: (feminine singular) she who acts in the manner of Pistis
Common English translation: faith, trust
Translated definition of the word:
PISTIS means trust, faith, and subjective certainty. PISTIS is the belief that everything is as it appears to be.
Pronunciation: Pnêvmȧ
Singular: Pneuma
Plural: Pneumata
Other Forms of the Word:
Common English translation: breath, intellect, ghost, spirit
Translated definition of the word:
The word PNEUMA derives from the verb 'pneo' meaning 'I breath' or 'I blow'. In its archaic form,
PNEUMA denotes the breath of a person and Homer uses the word to denote the blowing of the air in terms
of winds. Aristophanes utilises PNEUMA to refer to the demeanour conveyed by a person while Xenophon
speaks of it in a similar manner to denote the fervour imbued within people.
It was only later in the translation of the biblical texts that the christian translators used the word PNEUMA
to denote the Holy Spirit as well as the human spirit in the christian sense of the word.
Pronunciation: Pôlis
Singular: Polis
Plural: Politeiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Politeia: (singular) translated as 'the State' and defined as a KOINONIA (Society/Community) organised
according to particular laws aimed at maintaining peace among its members, guaranteeing its integrity and
providing for the development of its particular culture.
Politis: (singular) translated as 'Citizen' and referring to a member of a POLIS who is free to participate in
the Politeia. According to Aristotle there are five characteristics that determine whether one is a Politis: 1)
participation in the legislation of the POLIS through the democratic procedure; 2) possessing the right to
participate in political and judicial procedures; 3) possessing the option to hold office in the POLIS; 4)
membership to the broader KOINONIA of the POLIS and 5) possessing the right to rule and be ruled.
Politikē: (singular) translated as 'Policy' and according to Speusippos refers to the secure GNOSIS
(Knowledge) of the KALON (Good) and beneficent as well as the secure GNOSIS necessary for the
establishment of DIKEOSYNE (Justice).
Politikon: (singular) translated as 'Civil'. The word was used by Aristotle to distinguish humans from
animals. He did this by calling humans 'politikon animals' while other animals were referred to as
'koinonikon' (communal animals). As human co-habitation is subject to organisational principles, rules of
justice and distinctions between that which is Just and Unjust are necessary thus the Politikon quality of
humans is that which establishes their humanity. This theoretical division is bridged by the Stoics in their
determination that philosophic thought and political deeds are different views of the same ARÊTE (Virtue).
Politismos: (singular) translated as 'Civilisation' with reference to the totality of traditions, ideas, manners
and all types of human expression which come from a totality of people having common tribal identity and
common civil behaviour. Politismos has both an exoteric and esoteric form which aims at PAIDEIA
(Education) and EMEROSIS (Taming) of the people.
Common English translation: City, Town
Translated definition of the word:
POLIS refers to the habitat of many people with common perceptions and a conviction in a common
Pronunciation: Pôlymêriȧ
Singular: Polymeria
Other Forms of the Word:
Polymeris: (singular) denoting one who acts with Polymeria
Common English translation: multilateralism, polymerization
Translated definition of the word:
POLYMERIA refers to the involvement of all parties in a decision-making process as well as to a
continuation of a chain of events, thoughts, actions, etc by the involvement of each part of the process at its
KAIROS (appropriate time).
Pronunciation: Prôsōpôn
Singular: Prosopon
Plural: Prosopa
Other Forms of the Word:
Prosopou: (singular) denoting that which is of the Prosopon
Common English translation: face, person, role
Translated definition of the word:
The word PROSOPON proposes the concept of the unified 'All-Existence' which manifests in the
phenomenal world as seeming to have limits, like a skin, thus appearing to divide each individual being into
separate entities. PROSOPON refers to every individual mortal being and their distorted and phenomenal
awareness of the KOSMOS (World) that is a product of the properties of mortality and divisiveness
contained within each PROSOPON. From these properties of mortality and divisiveness arises the illusory
perception of ego, separateness and being subject to the KOSMOS (World) rather than being a part of it. The
Gods are not PROSOPA as they are not subject to the same properties of mortality and divisiveness. This
concept gave rise to the genre of ancient Hellenic theatrical Tragedy wherein the PROSOPON (mortal) is
characterized by smallness and temporality in contrast to the greatness, vastness and eternal nature of the
KOSMOS (world). The PROSOPON is contained within the three-dimensional HYLIKO (material) level of
the KOSMOS and simultaneously the PROSOPON contains the KOSMOS (World) within its
PNEUMATIKON (Intellectual) level.
Pronunciation: Psēkhē
Singular: Psyche
Plural: Psychês
Other Forms of the Word:
Psychis: (singular) denoting that which is of Psyche
Psychon: (plural) denoting that which is of Psyche
Common English translation: soul
Translated definition of the word:
PSYCHE derives from the verb 'psycho' meaning 'to breath lightly'. It is the invisible First Cause of the biophysiological
expressions considered by the ancients to be the breath. The movements of PSYCHE are
supervised by the God Poseidon and PSYCHE is considered to be 'undying'. PSYCHE is commonly referred
to as the THEO PYR (Divine Fire) or LOGOS [See LOGOS]. It is in this sense that it was considered that
mortals contained a part of the Divine within them through which they participate in the birth-death cycle.
Thus, according to Herakleitos, the THEOS (God) is resurrected each time a mortal dies and the THEOS
must die in order for the mortal to live. PSYCHE was viewed differently by the varied philosophical schools,
with some determining PSYCHE to be temporal in nature. Heraclitus considered the PSYCHE of humans
and animals to parts of the kosmic fire to which it returns after the death of the body and he furthermore
stated while the kosmic fire is trapped in the body, it loses its Divine quality.
Pronunciation: Rizōmȧtȧ
Singular: Rizoma
Plural: Rizomata
Other Forms of the Word:
Rizomatos: (singular) denoting that which is of a Rizoma
Rizomaton: (plural) denoting that which is of Rizomata
Common English translation: root, rhizome (botanical)
Translated definition of the word:
RIZOMATA is the name given by Empedokles to the four categories of the essence/substance commonly
misconstrued by occultists to be the same as the Four Elements. The RIZOMATA are four in number (Fire,
Air, Earth and Water) and in their various permutations, driven by the forces of PHILOTITA (friendship)
and KOTOS/NEIROS (Strife), synthesise and deconstruct the forms of the KOSMOS (World). There are
four unchangeable and pure RIZOMATA namely the radiant Zeus, the life-giving Hera, Aidoneos/Ades
(Hades) and Nestis. [Also see SPHAIROS, STOIKHEION]
Pronunciation: Sȧphēniȧ
Singular: Sapheneia
Other Forms of the Word:
Saphies: referring to someone who speaks with Sapheneia
Common English translation: clarity, explicitness
Translated definition of the word:
SAPHENEIA is clarity and distinctness in communication as opposed to ASAPHEIA which is obscurity and
vagueness. It is the speech which renders the subject totally knowable and recognizable. SAPHENEIA is one
of the six ARÊTÊS of the LOGOS [See APREPIA].
Pronunciation: Siēmȧ
Singular: Siema/Siemeion
Plural: Siemata
Other Forms of the Word:
Siematos: (singular) denoting that which is of a Siema
Siematon: (plural) denoting that which is of Siemata
Common English translation: sign, symptom, clue
Translated definition of the word:
A SIEMA is the sign of an augury, a mark, a grave or graveyard, a sample, an indication, a mark, a
demarcated place, a Divine mark, a miracle, a flag or coat of arms, a signature, a border or limit (as in a
fence or an established city boundary), a mathematical or musical mark, the alphabet, an emblem of any sort
and any sign that reveals something else. A SIEMA is a sign or indication that something is about to happen,
is happening or has happened. SIEMATA are signs/marks/omens or auguries that reveal something. What
SIEMATA reveal are more transitory than the IDEAS (Ideas) associated with SYMVOLA. In terms of
Divine SIEMATA, the word indicates the presence of a THEOS (God) or THEA (Goddess) in the past,
present or future. Examples of SIEMATA may be found in the following: Sophokles' use of the word in the
sentence, "You show SIEMEION (signs) of noble birth"; the Kyrikion (Caduceus) of Hermes is the SIEMA
of a messenger; the MANTIS (Soothsayer) of an army would look for SIEMATA to determine the correct
course of action; the vine is a SIEMA of Dionysos and a mark on the ground caused by lightening is a
Pronunciation: Sôphiȧ
Singular: Sophia
Plural: Sophiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Sophias: (singular) denoting that which is of Sophia
Sophos: (singular) a person who has Sophia
Sophoi: (plural) people who have Sophia
Common English translation: wisdom
Translated definition of the word:
Socrates defined SOPHIA to be an EPISTEME and thus a complete and secure GNOSIS (Knowledge).
Aristotle distinguishes SOPHIA from PHRONESIS (Practical Wisdom) although he calls them both
ARÊTÊS (Virtues) of the Intellect, as he states that SOPHIA is linked to Reason and the knowledge of
ALETHEIA (Truth) and as such it is a theoretical ARÊTE (Virtue) while PHRONESIS (Practical Wisdom)
is related to the ethical KALON (Goodness) which renders it a practical ARÊTE. Speusippos determines
SOPHIA to be the speaking of (ALETHEIA) Truth and acting in accordance with the dictates of PHYSIS
Pronunciation: Sōphrôsynē
Singular: Sophrosyne
Other Forms of the Word:
Sophrosynis: (singular) denoting that which derives from Sophrosyne
Sophron: a person who acts with Sophrosyne
Common English translation: common sense
Translated definition of the word:
a) The METRON (Measure) of PSYCHE (Soul) concerned with the natural desires and pleasures;
b) The harmonising and orderliness of PSYCHE (Soul) with the pleasures and sorrows;
c) The accordance of PSYCHE (Soul) with the principle of 'Rule and be Ruled';
d) Self-determined action as per nature;
e) Good conduct of PSYCHE;
f) Rational dialogue of PSYCHE for KALON (Good) and KAKON (Bad);
g) The state of comfortable/easy selection and discretion of that which is required.
Although SOPHROSYNE promotes the measured restrain and control over pleasure and desire, it does not
lead to the withdrawal from the joys and expression of life as is commonly promoted by the christian 'denial
of temptations'. SOPHROSYNE may also be understood as the ability for self-control.
Pronunciation: Sphêrôs
Singular: Sphairos
Other Forms of the Word:
Sphaira: that which has the shape of a Sphairos; (a sphere).
Common English translation: spherical
Translated definition of the word:
SPHAIROS is the ideal state of the four RIZOMATA (Roots) when held in perfect balance by PHILOTIS
(Friendship) while NEIKOS (Strife) holds the perimeter in place thus forming a perfect SPHAIRA (Sphere).
This state is seen as the personification of the perfect IPARXIS (Existence), i.e. THEOS (God). According to
Xenophanes and Empedokles, the essence of a THEOS is SPHAIROS.
Pronunciation: Spônthē
Singular: Sponde
Plural: Spondai
Other Forms of the Word:
Spondis: (singular) that which is of the Sponde
Spondon: (plural) that which is of the Spondai
Common English translation: libation
Translated definition of the word:
SPONDE derives from the verb 'spendo' meaning 'I pour a few drops of liquid from my cup'. SPONDE is the
ceremonial act of pouring a liquid (usually water, wine, oil or milk) from a container onto the altar or ground
as an offering to a THEOS (God) or THEA (Goddess).
Pronunciation: Stikhēôn
Singular: Stoikheion
Plural: Stoikheia
Common English translation: element
Translated definition of the word:
STOIKHEION derives from the verb 'stoikho' meaning 'to proceed in formation', 'coordinated' or
'composed'. The formed or composed parts are all HYLIKO (material), i.e. the Empedoklean RIZOMATA
(Roots). Thus a STOIKHEION is a part of any compound or composite thing and does not necessarily refer
to the RIZOMATA (Roots).
According to Speusippos, STOIKHEION is that which combines and dissolves all composite things.
It was the Neo-Pythagoreans who later determined that the STOIKHEIA of all bodies are Fire, Air, Water
and Earth thus giving rise to the occult theory of the Four Elements. [See RIZOMATA]
Pronunciation: Symvôlôn
Singular: Symvolon
Plural: Symvola
Other Forms of the Word:
Symvboliko: (singular) of or pertaining to a Symbolon or expressing a Symbolon
Common English translation: Symbol
Translated definition of the word:
The root of the word SYMVOLA is derived from Synvalo; a compound word that in turn derives from an
even more archaic form of the language. Synvalo is comprised of the words: 'syn' = 'to add' and 'balo' = 'the
process of reasoning' and/or 'I establish a foundation'. The etymology of SYMVOLA is thus also related to
'symvallein' meaning 'to join'. The word SYMVOLON was used to refer to recognition, proof, guarantee,
receipt, identification and the allegorical expressions of Pythagoras. The earliest usage of SYMVOLON is
that which refers to a concrete token used in retail or for private use. Hermippos records the retail usage of
the word as a form of private monetary guarantee along with Archippos who refers to a wealthy person as
one being without a SYMVOLON which indicated impoverishment. To attest to the private usage of
SYMVOLON, Sophocles uses the term in Oedipus as a specific device used to confirm kinship or the
authenticity of a message. Xenophon too uses the term in the private manner to describe the gifts exchanged
by friends as a seal of friendship. The association between SYMVOLA as the simultaneous seal, recognition
and identification between two people was so common in Athenian life that special clay plaques were made
and then cut into two irregular designs so that each half could only join to its original mate. These clay
plaques became the SYMVOLON between two people who wished to seal a bond of friendship, kinship or
alliance between them with each person taking possession of one half of the SYMVOLON as a concrete
token of their special relationship. From the significance of these SYMVOLA derived complex philosophical
concepts regarding complementary opposites with each half being incomplete without the other. This is
illustrated in the statement accredited to Aristophanes in Plato's Symposium:
"Each of us is a mere SYMBOLON of a man, the result of bisection, like the flat fish, two out of one, and
each of us is constantly searching for his corresponding SYMVOLON"
Aristotle confirms the philosophical understanding of SYMVOLON with his account of a statement he
credits to Empedokles: "…in the male and in the female, there is, as it might be, a SYMVOLON…"
The philosophical extension of the meaning of SYMVOLON is echoed in the metaphorical broadening of the
term to include inferences to other actions, gestures or token objects that were meaningless and incomplete
without their corresponding and complementary associated significance. In Aeschylus' Agamemnon, the
watchman awaits a beacon of light as a SYMVOLON of the returning fleet from Troy. In isolation, neither
the beacon of light nor the waiting watchman is complete in its meaning and it is only when the two
complementary pieces of information are combined into a single context that the total significance of the
scene is revealed. Further illustrations of the philosophical extension may be found in Herakleitos' statement
that the 'lameness' of Hephaistos is SYMVOLIKO as it indicates the distinction between Divine Fire and
human fire and the Stoic Kleanthes, when stating that the HEGEMONIKON (ruling portion of the PSYCHE)
is situated in the head, thus describing the MYTHOS (Myth) of the birth of Athena from the head of Zeus as
a SYMVOLON for the location of the HEGEMONIKON.
The rhetorician Demetrius clarifies the philosophical extensions of the term SYMVOLON as that which
denotes a particular type of analogous and allegorical expression. The particular type of expression referred
to by Demetrius is best described by Proclus
"And so the recapitulation of 'The Republic' which appears before the section on physics addresses itself to a
consideration to the structure of the universe by means of EIKONIKOS (likenesses/representations/reflections); the
story of Atlantis does the same but [by means of] SYMVOLIKO. Indeed, it is by means of SYMVOLA that myths
customarily hint at higher realities."
Pronunciation: Synthēmȧ
Singular: Synthema
Plural: Synthemata
Common English translation: signal, sign
Translated definition of the word:
The word SYNTHEMA derives from the words 'syn' (to add) and 'tiethimi'(I erect, place or establish,
dedicate, create, determine). Generally speaking, SYNTHEMA refers to a sign, signal, representation of
something, recognition, something that is characteristic of, a meaningful gesture and a sign of agreement or
treaty. SYNTHEMA differs from SYMVOLA (Symbols) and SIEMA (Signs) as SYNTHEMATA are either
acted upon or require an action.
Sophokles refers to SYNTHEMA as both the markings used to relay a message and as the sign that brought
disaster. For Plato, the words by which one names things are agreed upon SYNTHEMATA. Clement of
Alexandria uses SYNTHEMA to describe the cryptic statement that functioned as a form of recognition and
that was used by those preparing for initiation into the Eleusinian mysteries to account certain necessary
actions that had been taken.
In a similar manner, Iamblikhos states that SYNTHEMATA are sacred cues of the presence of the Divine
that guide PSYCHE (Soul) to recognise the THEOI (Gods).
According to Aristides, the orator and rhetorician from Smyrna, a SYNTHEMA was sent to him by
Asklepios that offered cause for and encouraged him to address the public. [Compare EIKON, SIEMA,
Pronunciation: Tȧksis
Singular: Taxis
Other Forms of the Word:
Common English translation: order
Translated definition of the word:
TAXIS is the act through which things or PROSOPA [See PROSOPON] are 'ordered' and the state within
which they exist arranged and ordered into moving in a methodical manner.
According to Aristotle, TAXIS is one of the Three Pre-Suppositions for 'OREON' (Beauty).
Speusippos defines TAXIS to be the similarity of 'work' (as the generic term for any continuous application
of energy) between entities, the symmetry of participation or the cause of symmetry acknowledged by all
entities 'working' together, i.e. coordination.
Pronunciation: Têkmōrr
Singular: Tekmor
Plural: Tekmēria
Common English translation: token, sign, proof
Translated definition of the word:
TEKMOR derives from the verb 'tekmairome' meaning 'I follow signs'. According to Alkman of Sparta,
TEKMOR is the sign of commencement for the unfolding KOSMOS (World) following the dissolution of
the primordial Darkness and concurrently the pursued end of the KOSMOS (World) after its completed
development until its next creation.
Mousaios speaks of TEKMOR in terms of it being a helpful sign instituted by the THEOI (Gods) so that
mortals may clearly distinguish between things that are AGATHA (Beneficially Good) and those which are
KAKA (Bad). This type of sign is called TEKMOR ENARGES (Distinct Sign).
Pronunciation: Têlêtē
Singular: Telete
Plural: Teletês
Other Forms of the Word:
Teletis: (singular) that which is of the Telete
Teleton: (plural) that which is of the Teletês
Common English translation: ceremony, ritual
Translated definition of the word:
TELETE derives from the verb 'telo' (I complete perfectly) and refers to any formal events or expressions
which contain a series of standardised symbolic actions. TELETE denotes specifically a ritual through which
the worship of a THEOS (God) or THEA (Goddess) is expressed.
Pronunciation: Têlôs
Singular: Telos
Plural: Telē
Other Forms of the Word:
Teleio: (singular) that which has attained Telos. (Perfection in English)
Teleia: (plural) that which has attained Telos (Perfection in English)
Common English translation: purpose, end, fulfillment, close, finish, terminate
Translated definition of the word:
TELOS means fulfillment and purpose. It is the purpose of energy or the purpose of all VIOS (Biographical
Life). TELOS denotes the ultimate purpose of human VIOS (Biographical Life) which is seen to be the
'Highest AGATHON' (Beneficial Good). Thus for the Stoics, the TELOS for human VIOS is to conform to
the LOGOS [See LOGOS] which derives from Zeus and returns to Him as He solely directs the purpose
which governs all.
Pronunciation: Thêȧsis
Singular: Theasis
Other Forms of the Word:
Theasêos: (singular) denoting Theasis when referring to that which derives from it or belongs to it; i.e. the
glory of Theasêos
Common English translation: view, observation, perspective
Translated definition of the word:
THEASIS refers to observation from a vantage point, to survey a PROSOPON (face/person/role) or to view
unfolding events. THEASIS also denotes to the point of view (perspective) from which a person examines
things and the ability to understand and be aware of esoteric and spiritual things.
THEASIS was the purpose of philosophy and is illustrated by Plato in the Symposium:
"θεος δε ανθρωπω ου μειγνυται, αλλα δια τουτου παfσα εστιν η ομιλια και η διαλεκτος θεοιfς προς ανθρωπους" (Sym. 203a)
"Man can never mix with the Gods but only to approach or achieve THEASIS of the Divine…"
Pronunciation: Thêe_ē
Singular: Theos (Masculine); Thea (Feminine)
Plural: Theoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Theotēta: The abstract meaning of a Theos or Thea as a totality of the attributes of the Theos or Thea in
question. Also referring to every divine form of male or female gender in its totality.
Theotētês: The plural form of Theotēta
Theo: (singular) that which is divine
Theia: (plural) that which is divine
Thêës: plural form of Thea
Common English translation: the Gods
Translated definition of the word:
THEOI is an adjective denoting the perfect ONTA (Beings) who emerge from the 'EN' (One) through simple
multiplication of itself into a multitude and thus preserving all its attributes. The THEOI constitute the
Intellect(ual) Essence of the SYMPAN (Universe) which is expressed as a multiplicity of organised,
systematic, uniform, self-actuating, multi-faceted, recurring ONTA (Beings) who conform to natural law.
The THEOI represent the EINAI (Being/Existence), Order, Eternity and the MAKARIOTIS (Blissfulness) of
the Supreme ON [See entry for ON] as imperishable, incorruptible, unalterable, unchanging reflections and
representations of It. The THEOI permeate unhindered throughout the world of HYLE (material) and act
upon it dynamically. As initiators of the Holy Mysteries of life, the THEOI participate in perpetual
regeneration which is the continuous composition and decomposition of forms whilst ever maintaining the
integrity of the sphere of activity of each THEOS. The actions of the THEOI are subject to Natural Law and
serve the Natural Law without withdrawing or converging into one and without being substituted, ceasing to
exist or being defeated according to the desires and expectations of disrespectful mortals or organised
systems of impiety. It is important to mention that the terms EN (One) and MONAS (Single) within the
Hellenic meaning has only a comparative mathematical substance and therefore implies the pre-existence of
the multitude. EN (One) is sometimes used as a comparison to METHEN (Zero) or Non-Existence.
METHEN is a modern term and is thus not accepted by the Ancient Hellenes as plausible. The THEOI
constitute the first active multiplication of the ONTOS (See ON) which is incorrectly referred to as THEOS
(God) hence why the Theology is different to the Ontology and the association of the two is cultivated
purposefully by monotheists to serve their theology. The THEOI as with ON are unborn, perfect, good,
immortal, just, without form, all wise, eternal, immaterial and also of dual substance, unchangeable, infinite
and cohesive. The THEOI are not PROSOPA (people or roles) as that denotes limits of which the THEOI
have none.
"…it is an immortal ON who is rational, perfect, blissful, incapable of any bad and who is prudent for the
Kosmos and all that is in it, although it is not anthropomorphic, it is nevertheless creator and father of all
and as such extends all its parts into everything, which are labeled with many names in accordance with
natural forces. Thus they name it Dia because through it everything emerged; they name it Zēna because it
is the cause of Zeen (living) or because through life it becomes distinct. Athena, they call it because it
extends its 'Hegemonikon' into the aither; Hera, because it extends itself into the Air; Hephaistos because it
extends itself into the 'technical' fire; Poseidon because it extends into the wet element and Demetra because
it extends into the earth. So were others named in accordance with the familiarity of each 'Theotēta' "
Diogenes Laertios (7.147)
Pronunciation: Thêeooryiȧ
Singular: Theurgia
Plural: Theurgiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Theurgias: (singular) denoting that which is of Theurgia
Theurgos: (singular) a person who performs Theurgia
Common English translation: theurgy
Translated definition of the word:
THEURGIA refers to a divine work as a ceremonial act which aims at direct communication with the
THEOI (Gods). Until THEURGIA was proposed by the Neo-Platonists as an alternative method to gain
GNOSIS (Knowledge) of the THEOI (Gods), the more common philosophical approach was meditation or
contemplation. THEURGIA does not mean 'compulsion' or 'manipulation' of the THEOI (Gods) as was
proposed by Hopfner who clearly misinterpreted Iamblikhos who did not actually intend THEURGIA to be
construed as a 'manipulation' of the THEOI (Gods). The key to understanding Iamblikhos may be found in
the second part of the word THEURGOS; namely 'urgos' deriving from DEMIOURGOS meaning 'he who
produces work for the benefit of common things' thus rendering the meaning of THEURGIA to be 'the
production of work for the benefit of Divine things (i.e. the THEOI)'.
Pronunciation: Thēsiȧ
Singular: Thysia
Plural: Thysiês
Other Forms of the Word:
Thysias: (singular) denoting that which is of Thysia
Thysion: (plural) denoting that which is of Thysiês
Common English translation: sacrifice
Translated definition of the word:
According to Speusippos, THYSIA is an offering of an 'IEREION' (that which is to be sacrificed) to any or
all of the THEOI (Gods). An extension of THYSIA is AUTOTHYSIA (self-sacrifice) as a high point of
human life within which even human nature is surpassed and leads logically to self-preservation.
AUTOTHYSIA implies logically that it is THYSIA only when perishing or dying. It is then impossible for a
THEOS (God) to be sacrificed due to the imperishable and immortal nature of the THEOI (Gods). [See
Pronunciation: Thiȧsôs
Singular: Thiasos
Plural: Thiasoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Thiasou: (singular) denoting something that is of a Thiasos
Common English translation: theatrical company, troupe of actors, ceremonial group
Translated definition of the word:
A THIASOS is a religious group formed to perform ceremonies of a religious nature. The word THIASOS is
linked directly to the worship of Dionysos through its association with the word THYRSOS (the Staff of
Pronunciation: Timē
Singular: Timē
Plural: Timês
Other Forms of the Word:
Timēs: (singular) denoting that which of Timē
Timon: (plural) that which is of Timês
Timēmenos: (masculine) he who has Timē or Timês bestowed upon him
Timēmenē: (feminine) she who has Timē or Timês bestowed upon her
Timēos: (masculine) he who possesses Timē
Timēia: (feminine) she who possesses Timē
Common English translation: honour, value
Translated definition of the word:
TIMĒ refers to esteem, respect, rights, recognition of value and reward for services rendered.
Speusippos determines TIMĒ to be the granting of goods for acts of ARÊTE (Virtue), worthiness due to
ARÊTE (Virtue) and the external recognition of decency and/or worthiness.
Pronunciation: Tykhē
Singular: Tykhe
Plural: Tykhês
Other Forms of the Word:
Tykhêros: (masculine) he who has Tykhe
Tykhêrē: (feminine) she who has Tykhe
Common English translation: luck
Translated definition of the word:
According to Speusippos, TYKHE is the movement from the invisible to the invisible thus causing a
spontaneous divine act.
Pronunciation: Vȧrvȧrismôs
Singular: Varvarismos
Plural: Varvarismoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Varvarismou: (singular) denoting that which is Varbarismos
Varvarismon: (plural) denoting that which is Varvarismoi
Varvaros: a person who acts with Varvarismos
Common English translation: barbarism
Translated definition of the word:
VARVARISMOS constitutes the use of words which stand in opposition to the Hellenic words due to either
mispronunciation, incorrect usage within context or faulty speech. VARVARISMOS is considered as
severely as the erroneous usage of syntax. VARVARISMOS is one of the six KAKIÊS of the LOGOS in
opposition to HELLENISMOS.
Pronunciation: Viôs
Singular: Vios
Plural: Vioi
Other Forms of the Word:
Viou: (singular) denoting a Vios when referring to that which derives from it or belongs to it; i.e. the events
of his Viou
Vion: (plural) denoting Vioi when referring that which derives from them or belongs to them; i.e. there
parallels in their Vion
Common English translation: life (but in proper translation referring specifically to Biographical Life)
Translated definition of the word:
VIOS is the human biographical life inclusive of birth and death. The VIOS of a person is their birth and the
circumstances that surround it; the events and how these unfold and relate throughout their life; the things
and goods that the person acquires throughout their life and finally the persons death and the circumstances
surrounding it, i.e. the complete biography of a person. VIOS may also refer to an entity which is an
abstraction such as the political VIOS of a state, the ethical VIOS of a community, the public VIOS of a
prominent person and even the turbulent VIOS of the planet. The word VIOS is distinguished from ZOË (the
biological Life) in pertaining to the way of life, the duration of life and one's fortune. [See ZOË for
Pronunciation: Vômôs
Singular: Vomos
Plural: Vomoi
Other Forms of the Word:
Vomou: (singular) denoting a Vomos when referring to that which derives from it or belongs to it; i.e. the
dais of the Vomou
Vomon: (plural) denoting Vomoi when referring that which derives from them or belongs to them; i.e. the
marble for construction of the Vomon
Common English translation: altar
Translated definition of the word:
The word VOMOS derives the root 'va' which originally denoted the raised base of the altar and later came
to denote the whole altar. VOMOS is a general term denoting a place, a pit, an aboveground structure of
single or multiple levels which may be constructed in a square, rectangular or circular form. There are
specific terms denoting the two specific types of VOMOI. The first is the VOMOS which includes a sidegrate
known as the ESKHARA and is the raised altar to the OLYMPIOI (Olympian Gods). The second was
the VOTHROS or LAKKOS that took the form of a pit and was used for sacrifices to the KHTHONIOI
(Gods of the Underworld).
Pronunciation: Xêniȧ
Singular: Xenia
Plural: Xeniês
Other Forms of the Word:
Xenos: (masculine) a stranger
Xenē: (feminine) a stranger
Xenoi: (plural) strangers
Philoxenia: The act of hospitality
Common English translation: hospitality
Translated definition of the word:
XENIA refers to hospitality, kind treatment of strangers, friendly relations between strangers and a friendly
welcome. XENIA is a sacred and ancient tradition of the Hellenic people directly related to the humanistic
concept of philanthropy. XENIA falls under the auspices of the Supreme of the Gods when appealed to as
ZEUS XENIOS. The person providing the XENIA does not have the right to offend or commit an injustice
to the one receiving the PHILOXENIA. In turn, the receiver is obliged to respect the home which provided
the PHILOXENIA. According to Homer, the bond of friendship that results from PHILOXENIA continues
and is inherited by the descendents.
Pronunciation: Zēlôs
Singular: Zelos
Common English translation: zeal, ardour, eagerness
Translated definition of the word:
ZELOS is a form of sorrow which derives from the desire to surpass or to become equal to others. According
to the Stoics, ZELOS is one of the PATHEIN (Passions).
Pronunciation: Zōē
Singular: Zoë
Plural: Zoês
Other Forms of the Word:
Ζeen: the act of Zoë
Zoēs: (singular) that which is of Zoë
Zoön: (plural) that which is of Zoês
Zoa: forms of Zoë (life forms/animals)
Common English translation: Life
Translated definition of the word:
ZOË is biological life which is characterised by the method of conception, the act of birth, the development
and growth, the method of reproduction and the physical death of organisms. [See VIOS in comparison to note
the distinction between the biological and biographical life]
1. Θύραθεν ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΚΟ ΛΕΞΙΚΟ : Vlassis G Rassias (Primary Source: see Bibliography)
2. 'Αναλυτικό Λεξικό της Αρχαίας Ελληνικής' - Μακάριος Π. Πελέκης
3. 'The Pocket Aristotle' - Edited by Justin D. Kaplan
4. The Pre-Socratic Philosophers: G.S. Kirk and J.E. Raven
5. Nichomachean Ethics: Aristotle, James Alexander Kerr Thomson, Hugh Tredennick, Jonathan Barnes.
6. Douglas MacDowell: "Hybris in Athens." Greece and Rome 23 (1976) 14-31.
7. Ritualised Friendship and the Greek City: Gabriel Herman (Pg 17, note 17; Pg 62)
8. The Literary Microcosm, Theories of Interpretation of the later Neo-Platonists: James A. Coulter (Pg 60, Appendix One)
9. The Power of Money, Coinage and Politics in the Athenian Empire: Thomas J Figuera (Pg 505)
10. Oedipus, the King: Sophocles and translated by Robert Bragg (Pg 9)
11. Ancient Mystery Cults: Walter Burkert (Pg 94)
12. Eleusis, Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter: Karl Kerenyi and translated by Ralph Manheim (Pg 66/67)
13. Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia: William Mitchell Ramsey (Chapter 22, Letter to the Church of Pergamum)
14. Εορτές Και Ιεροπραξίες Των Ελλήνων : Vlassis G Rassias
16. Divry's Edition 'New English-Greek and Greek-English Dictionary: GK Konstantopoulou
17. Funk and Wagnalls Standard English Dictionary Volumes I & II
18. The Authorised Revised Roget's Thesaurus of Words and Phrases: Peter Mark Roget
19. 8th Edition of a Greek-English Lexicon compiled by Henry George Liddell, DD and Robert Scott, DD
Easy to Use English Index
Due to the introduction of Hellenic terms into English, it may at first seem like a daunting task to remember
all the words and what they mean in English. For this reason, an English Index has been included in the
Lexicon to assist people in finding the correct term for an English word. Each entry of the Lexicon includes a
list of the closest English words of the Hellenic word or phrase. This index lists these English words as well
as the correct Hellenic word and term in each entry in which it appears. Certain English words are fairly
general and will often appear as the closest English translation for more than one concept-specific Hellenic
word or phrase. When the same English word is used for more than one entry, all entries should be read in
the manner of a Thesaurus and the correct Hellenic term should be chosen according to which concept is
being specifically referred to. As the Hellenic language is a concept language it is more important than the
correct and specific concepts be communicated than it is to use the closest English word in translation.
English is a language that makes use of many interchangeable synonyms with often only etymological
differences or slight variations in meaning. For this reason, only the most commonly used English words
have been used in the Lexicon and thus when searching for the Hellenic word for a more specific or obscure
English word, it will be necessary to search for the general synonyms of the word as well.
English Index
Altar: VOMOS
Ardour: ZELOS
Assembly: EKKLESIA
Association: ETAIREIA
Audacity: HUBRIS
Authority: ARKHĒ
Awareness (intellectual): NOESIS
Awareness (sensory): AESTHESIS
Bashfulness: AIDOS
Beauty: ORAION
Beginning: ARKHĒ
Being: ON
Beneficence: AGATHON
Bravery: ANDREIA
Breath: PNEUMA
Catharsis: KATHARSIS
Ceremonial Group: THIASOS
Ceremony: TELETE
Chaos: KHAÔS
Community: KOINONIA
Concord: OMONOIA
Conflict: AGON
Contamination: MIASMA
Contest: AGON
Correctitude: ORTHOPRAXIA
Cosmos: KOSMOS
Courage: ANDREIA
Creature: ON
Devotion: EULABEIA
Devoutness: EULABEIA
Directness: EFTHYTETA
Discernment: GNOMĒ
Disrespect: HUBRIS
District: DEMOS
Dodecahedron: DODEKAHEDRON
Eagerness: ZELOS
Education: PAIDEIA
Entity: ON
Equals: OMOIOS
Essence: OUSIA
Existence: IPARXIS
Existence (to be; it is): EINAI
Explicitness: SAPHENEIA
Fame: DOXA
Forbearance: ANOKHE
Fulfillment: TELETE
Gentiles: ETHNIKOI
Glory: DOXA
Hedonism: HEDONY
Hexis: EXIS
Hospitality: XENIA
Household: OIKOS
Hubris: HUBRIS
Humanitarianism: ANTHROPISMOS
Idea: IDEA
Imagination: PHANTASIA
Impudence: ANAIDEIA
Inappropriate: APREPEIA
Ineffable: ARRETON
Insult: HUBRIS
Knowledge: GNOSIS
Knowledge (Secure): EPISTEME
Libation: SPONDE
Magic(k): MAGEIA
Material: HYLĒ
Matter: HYLĒ
Measure: METRON
Memory: MNEME
Metaphysics: METAPHYSIKE
Mind: NOUS
Multilateral: POLYMERIA
Municipality: DEMOS
Nature: PHYSIS
Necessity: ANANKE
Noumenon: NOUMENON
Observation: THEASIS
Opinion: DOXA, GNOMĒ
Opposites (Tension of): PALINTONOS ARMONIE
Oracle/Oracular: MANTIKI/MANTEIA
Order: TAXIS
Origin: ARKHĒ
Outspokenness: PARRESIA
Pardon: KHARIS
Partnership: ETAIREIA
Pathos: PATHOS
Passion: PATHOS
Penitence: METANOIA
Perspective: THEASIS
Phenomenon: PHENOMENON
Picture: EIKON
Pleasure: HEDONY
Pollution: MIASMA
Praise: DOXA
Principle: ARKHĒ
Promise: ORKOS
Public: DEMOS
Purpose: TELOS
Reason: LOGOS
Remembrance: MNEME
Representation: EIKON
Righteousness: DIKEOSYNE
Ritual: TELETE
Sacrifice (self): AUTOTHYSIA
Sanctuary: IERON
Sensibility: PHRONESIS
Sensation: AESTHESIS
Shame: AIDOS
Shamelessness: HUBRIS
Space: KHAÔS
Speech: LOGOS
Spherical: SPHAIROS
Spirit: DAIMON
Strife: AGON
Struggle: AGON
Substance: OUSIA
Supplication: IKESIA
Symptom: SIEMA
Temperance: EGKRATEIA
Theatrical Company: THIASOS
Time (timely): KAIROS
Tolerance: ANOKHE
Troupe (of actors): THIASOS
Truth (intuitive): GNOMĒ
Underground: KHTHONIOS
Underworld: KHTHONIOS
Unspeakable: ARRETON
Virtue: ARÊTE

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